Inventory of Perennial Plants at “The Shambles”


Key for historic reference notations to Plant entries:

“Catalogue of the Plants in the Queensland Botanic Gardens”. Walter Hill, Government Printer, Brisbane 1875.                            1. 1875

 “Catalogue of Plants in the two Metropolitan Gardens, The Brisbane Botanic Garden and Bowen Park (The Garden of the Queensland Acclimatization Society). Frederick Manson Bailey, Colonial Botonist, Government Printer, Brisbane 1885                                     1A. 1885

 “Designed Landscapes in Queensland, 1859-1939”, Jean Sim, QUT, 1999, APPENDIX G, referred to the following plant lists:

“The Flower garden in Queensland, containing concise and practical instructions for the Cultivation of the flower garden. And the management of Pot Plants in Australia”, Albert Hockings, Slater & Co, Brisbane, 1875                                                                     2. 1875

“Cultural Industries in Queensland: Papers on the Cultivation of Useful Plants suited to the climate of Queensland:their value as food, in the arts, and in medicine; and methods of Obtaining their products” Lewis Bernays, Government printer, Brisbane , 1883, (pp 201-207, The Shade of trees)                                                                     3. 1883

 “Tree Planting for Shade and Ornament: Suggestions for teachers and others interested in the Planting of Trees” Edward Shelton, Dept of Agriculture, Government Printer, Brisbane, Bulletin 17, 1892

List: Philip McMahon, Brisbane Botanic gardens Curator     4a.  1892

Ebenezer Cowley, Overseer, State Nursery, Kamerunga4b.  1892

J S Edgar , Botanic gardens , Rockhampton                 4c.   1892

William Soutter, Manager , Acclimatization society      4d.   1892

 “General Catalogue of Seeds, Plants, bulbs, Tubers, trees, Climbers, etc.” Samuel Eaves, Howard, printer, Brisbane, 1897           5.    1897

 “Queenslander” under ‘Horticulture’ section ‘Shrubs’, William Soutter, 18/12/1897 pp 1181                                                            6.    1897

 “General descriptive Catalogue for 1874, of Fruit trees, Shrubs, Ornamental and forest trees, Etc. etc” Charles Wyatt, Frogmore Nursery, Geelong 1874                                                          7.    1874

 “1896 Catalogue of Flower roots”. Law, Somner & Co., Melbourne, 1896                                                                                      8.   1896

 “Catalogue of Plants for Sale by Michael Guilfoyle” Exotic Nursery, Double bay, Sydney 1851                                                       9.   1851

 “Catalogue of Plants for Sale at the Victoria Nursery, Richmond” George Brunning, Melbourne, 1855                                                  10.  1855

 “Report on the Progress and Condition of the Botanic Garden and Government Plantations, 1873”, R.Schomburgk, W.C.Cox: Government Printer, Adelaide, 1874                                                          11.  1874

 “Botanic Gardens, Brisbane, Catalogue of Plants 1962”, Brisbane city Council, Brisbane, 1962                                                        12. 1962

“Federation Gardens: Plant lists, Compiled from Searl & Sons General Catalogue 1901, Seeds, Plants & Bulbs for Sydney; Pearce Bros.Descriptive Catalogue and Guide 1900; Robert Little & Co’s Catalogue of Flower seeds Sydney 1900: Rumsey’s 1882 Catalogue (Roses) Sydney 1882                    13. 1900/1

“Talgai Homestead, Plant Ledger, commenced in 1868-1907 by Ellen and George Clark. Additions after 1907-1942 George Carr Clark, 1945-1965 Bardwell”                                                                     14. 1868                                       ,Hortus camdenensis: an illustrated catalogue of plants collected by Sir William Macarthur at Camden Park, NSW, Australia between about c.1820 & 1861 / by Colin Mills     15. Camden

“The Garden Plants of China” Peter Valder, Florilegium, Sydney 1999      16. China



Alyssum “carpet of snow” “Snow crystals” 1A.1885

Browallia speciosa (Sapphire flower) 1A.1885 (B.elata)

Antirrhinum (mixed Snapdragons) “Camelot”

Cornflower 13.1900/1

Cosmos, Cosmos sulpheus

Chrysanthemum paludosum “Snowland”

Dianthus “Persian carpet”, “Strawberry parfait”

Dorotheanthus bellidiformis Livingstone Daisy         South Africa

Lobelia “Lightning blue”, “string of pearls” 13.1900/1

Escholzia Californian poppy

Matthiola incana, known as hoary stock, is a species of flowering plant in the genus Matthiola. The common name stock usually refers to this species, though it may also be applied to the whole genus. It is native to southern Europe (from the Balearics to the former Yugoslavia) and is naturalized in the western part of the Mediterranean region, roughly in the area of the olive tree. The plant prefers calcareous soils, and often grows on cliffs overlooking the sea, or on old walls. It is a plant of the coast, but it can be found, naturalized, even in the hinterland up to 600 m of altitude.

Nicotineana sylvestris 1A.1885

Nigella “love in the Mist” 13.1900/1

Petunias “Cascade mixed” Bonanza” “Lullaby”

Pansys “Super swiss giants”, Giant butterfly” 13.1900/1

Primula malacoides “lollipops” 13.1900/1

Salvia “strata” “Victoria white”

Torenia asiatica. Introduced to Britain in 1823 at Camden Park in 1850 15.Camden

Verbena 1.1875, 7.1897 “Peruvian red”, “deep purple”

Zinnia angustifolia, the narrowleaf zinnia, is a herbaceous flowering plant.  The stems have many branches and the herbage is rough with short hairs. Species of zinnia native to northern and western Mexico and naturalized in parts of the Southwestern United States. Hybrids between Z. angustifolia and other species of Zinna are popular garden plants. This species has many cultivars belonging to three classes. Ours are likely from the Profusion series

  • The Profusion series (Zinnia angustifoliaelegans): orange, cherry, double cherry, apricot, deep apricot, coral pink, fire or white flowers.
  • The Star series: orange, white or gold flowers.
  • The Crystal White cultivar: with white flowers.

Potted front path garden, North Rose garden.


A large range of Salvias and Salvia like perennials are mentioned elsewhere on their own page.

Acalypha hispida (chenille plant) Low growing perennial with red tassal flowers. Central Shrub Garden, near pool

Achillea millefollium (yarrow) White and some much less vigorous yellow/red hybrids on dainty foliage low growing plant. Winter dormant. An ancient medicinal herb named for the Trojan warrior Achilles.  The leaves were used since mediaeval times to staunch the flow of blood from knife or sword wounds. Asia Minor, garden hybrids.1.1875, 1A.1885 North Rose garden NW Corner, Front Path Garden

Althaea officinalis (marsh-mallow,) Marsh mallow is a perennial species indigenous to Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, which is used as a medicinal plant and ornamental plant. Pink single flowers on an erect branching structure. A confection made from the root since ancient Egyptian time evolved into today’s marshmallow treat.  Central Shrub Garden LOST 2018

Angelonia (Grannies bonnet). Low growing short lived perennial, mauve flower spikes in summer. Angelonia floribunda was introduced to Britain in 1839. Plants were obtained from the Sydney Botanic Garden for Camden Park in 1853 Tropical America 1.1875, 1A.1885, 9.1851, 15.Camden Back Path garden, Fenced Rose Garde

Aphelandra squarrosa. (Zebra plant). Low growing plant with strongly patterned striped leaves. Central erect flower spike mauve rather than usual yellow. Tropical Americas Orchid Walk

Argyranthemum frutescens (marguerite daisy) single white or pink flowers in summer. Short lived perennial, need to be replaced with new cuttings every couple of years especially after our very wet weather.Canary Islands Central lawn and Borders, Central Shrubbery

Artemisia arborescens Tree Wormwood   Struggles to be worthwhile in our wet, humid conditions. Front Path Garden Middle east

Artemisia lactiflora White Mugwort, near front path and “Allys Rose” Front path Garden Lost in wet weather along with our ‘Herb Robert’.

Artemesia ponticum (Roman wormwood). There are approximately 200 species of Wormwoods and a number of these grey foliage plants in our garden. Will become greener if in part shade and resent prolonged wet weather in our area. Pungent odour to foliage, Wormwood is used in the manufacture of Absinthe China 1A.1885 (Southern wood and Wormwood). South Rose garden, Front Path garden, near back stairs

Aster novi-belgii Easter Aster, in both double white and single purple. Near sundial, North garden. Garden cultivars.   South Rose garden

Begonia semperflorens (bedding begonia) These tough little plants are often available as border, landscaping plants with flower colours in white, pink and red. East Asia, garden hybrids.1A.1885, 13.1900/1 Fenced Rose garden, Blue trellis garden

 Brassica oleracea Ornamental Kale is a wonderful edging plant which will actually behave like a perennial. Colourful rosettes of ruffled cabbage like crowns on a woody stem   Near Back Stairs, Magnolia garden

Calceolaria (Ladys slipper). An unidentified yellow flowering variety appears from time to time in front path gardens. Many garden hybrids or varieties developed in the 1840s and 50s. 15.Camden

Catharanthus roseus (Vinca or periwinkle) A well known low growing garden plant often with single pink flowers. Does not survive long in our very wet episodes. Favours a hot dry location. Madagascar 1.1875, 10.1855 (Vinca rosea), 13.1900/1 North Rose garden, Magnolia garden, Central Lawn borders

Catharanthus roseus ‘Vinca Tattoo Black Cherry’  An upright type of Vinca with spectacular flowers that last well during the warmer weather. Each flower looks like it has been airbrushed with soft black highlights  The species is is native and endemic to Madagascar, but grown elsewhere as an ornamental and medicinal plant, a source of the drugs vincristine and vinblastine, used to treat cancer. It was formerly included in the genus Vinca as Vinca rosea.   Madagaskar   North Rose Garden  LOST 2019

Centrantherum punctatum (Lark Daisy). C. punctatum is a perennial herb to small subshrub. Blue thistle like flowers. Resents drying out needs shade. Malaysia 1.1875 (Centranthera hispida?)  Near back stairs

Chrysanthemum maximum syn. Leucanthemum (Shasta daisy). Low growing perennial daisy with single white flowers with yellow centre in summer. Clumps are easily divided and propagated. Pyrenees. 10.1855 (C.sinensis) Central Lawn and Borders, Fenced Rose garden

Chrysanthemum parthenium (Feverfew daisy) Low growing plant finely dissected leaves. Self seeds. Appears to be winter or dry weather dormant, summer flowering Asia Minor.1A.1885 Fenced Rose gardens

Chrysanthemum x hybridum (Florist Chrysanthemum) syn. Dendranthema x grandiflorum, Chrysanthemum x morifolium. This is an important garden plant arising from the interbreeding of several species in China from the 7th Century BC.  We have acquired unnamed garden varieties in white, cream, pink, mauve and orange/red as garden discards or spent mother’s day (May), specimens. Like many other long-cultivated plants the wild ancestor of the Chrysanthemum of the florists (C. sinense or C. morifolium) is not certainly known.  Various botanists have suggested that the parent was C. sinense vestitum, or C. ornatum, or C. indicum, or C. makinoi. In the Camden park NSW catalogue from 1845.  They will naturalize and flower each year in a warm climate garden. 1A.1885 (C.sinense), 2.1875, 7.1897 (‘garden hybrids’), 13.1900/1 (156 varieties). 14.1868 (40 varieties), 15.Camden, 16.China South Rose Garden

Cleome hasslerana (spider flower) Self seeding annual plant volunteer with pink or white flowers. Spiny stems need to be removed when plant is spent. Dead heading prolongs flowering. South America 1.1875 (C.aculeata ?)  West border behind fernery

Coreopsis grandiflora ‘Calypso’ is a clump forming herbaceous perennial with cream and yellow variegated foliage and golden yellow flowers with a ring of red around large yellow centres in summer. Garden edge South Rose Garden

Cosmos atrosanguineus, (chocolate cosmos), is a species of Cosmos, native to Mexico, where it is extinct in the wild. The species was introduced into cultivation in 1902, where it survives as a single clone reproduced by vegetative propagation. Cosmos atrosanguineus is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 40–60 cm tall, with a fleshy tuberous root. Dark maroon-brown flowers. South Rose Garden  LOST 2019

Dahlia x hybrid  We have acquired Dahlia tubers from various sources (see above section Bulbs, Rhizomes, Tubers) 14.1868 Central shrub Garden, Stone Circle., Driveway, North Rose garden, South Rose Garden

Dianthus chinensis Low clump forming plant with grey-green foliage and single pink flowers. We have a number of unnamed and named garden varieties which form an attractive low border plant. Resents our prolonged wet weather. Other Dianthus species include the ‘garden pinks’, Sweet William, Carnation and Clove pinks.  Northern China Garden hybrids 1.1875 (8 Dianthus species), 2.1875 (D.plumarius), 7.1897 (‘Dianthus of sorts’), 10.1855 (4 species), 13.1900/1 North Rose garden, South Rose garden, fenced Rose garden

Digiplexis -Digitalis x Isoplexsis ‘Firecracker’Common Name – Fox Glove Description – The English Foxglove is so well known to gardeners everywhere. Plant breeding has crossed Digitalis (The English Foxglove) with Isoplexsis which is native to the Canary Islands. The result are these selected plants make up this new combined family, the Digiplexis. Flowers are nonstop from mid-spring through to autumn. Flowers are borne on large spikes on top of the attractive foliage to around one metre high. Flower colour is apricot with cream centres. Love a north facing garden position.

Flower Time –. Tall dense spikes of apricot flowers are carried on 50cm tall stems from mid-spring until autumn.

Size – Grows to 50cm high x 50-80cm wide.

Use – Honey eating birds, bees and insects are attracted to the flower making another real benefit for these plants in your garden. They are just as easy to grow in containers as in garden beds, a real highlight for your garden.

Position – Full sun.

Maintenance – Tip pruning three weeks after planting promotes more flower spikes. Deadhead spent flowering spikes to help encourage continued flowering. Ensure plants are watered during dry times and fertilised regularly, particularly during hot and sunny weather.

Erysimum bicolor (Mediterranean wallflower). Var ‘Bowles Mauve’ and others. Shade and moisture tolerant low growing evergreen. Mauve and cream flowers on a tall terminal stem above the plant. Strikes from cutting. Canary Islands 10.1855 East Borders, Front Path garden, fenced Rose garden

Evolvulus pilosus var ‘Blue eyes’.  A beautiful clear blue single flower on low growing ground cover and landscaping plant. These will survive drought and restore with watering. South America, garden variety 1.1875 (E.alsinoides?), 1A.1885 North Rose garden

Erigeron mucronatus (Seaside daisy or fleabane), E. “lavender blush”, syn.  Aster erigeroides 1836 Erigeron mucronatus, Erigeron trilobus, Felicia erigeroides natalensisFelicia trinervia, Erigeron karvinskianumErigeron karvinskianus was first described in 1836 by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle. The specific epithet refers to Wilhelm Friedrich Karwinski von Karwin, who collected the plant in Mexico according to de Candolle. Erigeron karvinskianus is a species of flowering plant in the family Asteraceae known by the common names Mexican fleabane, Latin American fleabane, Santa Barbara daisy, Spanish daisy, Karwinsky’s fleabane,  or Bony-tip Fleabane.  Erigeron karvinskianusis native to much of MexicoCentral AmericaColombia and Venezuela and is naturalized in many other places, including parts of Africa and Europe,  AustraliaHong KongChile and the west coast of the United States. Wonderful tough ground cover daisy with fern like foliage and white or mauve daisy flowers. Mexico 1A.1885 South East Corner

Euryops chrysanthemoides (with the common names African bush daisy or bull’s-eye) is a small shrub native to Southern Africa that is also grown as a horticultural specimen in tropical to subtropical regions around the world. It occurs in the Eastern Cape, along the coast and inland, to KwaZulu-NatalMpumalanga and Swaziland. It is usually found on forest edges, in riverine bush and in ravines, as well as in coastal scrub, grassland and disturbed areas. It is a compact, densely branched, leafy, evergreen shrub, 0.5 to 2m in height. The species was moved to Euryops from the genus Gamolepis on the basis of chromosome counts. It is a ruderal weed in New South Wales, although it is not weedy in all places where it is cultivated or has naturalized. A very hardy yellow flowering daisy shrub, self seeds, transplants and gives reliable drought tolerant display. Spring-summer flowering Africa.Front Embankment, West Driveway garden

Felicia amelloides (Blue Margeurite) The blue felicia bush was introduced to Europe in the middle of the eighteenth century and hence was one of the first species used in horticulture.The genus Felicia Cass. was named by A.H.G. de Cassini in 1818 after Felix, a German official at Regensburg who died in 1846. F. amelloides was first named Cineraria amelloides by Linnaeus in 1763. Andreas Voss (1857-1924), a German author on horticulture, botanical nomenclature and meteorology, made the combination Felicia amelloides in 1894. South Africa  Front Path in pot 

Foeniculum vulgare syn. F.officinalis Fennel, including Bronze fennel. Tough perennial herb with feathery foliage and a pleasant aniseed scent. These should be in all gardens. 1A.1885 South Rose garden, Fenced Rose Garden

Gazania x hybrids Tough reliable sun lovers which may form a low groundcover in open well drained positions. Spring and Summer flowering South Africa.1A.1885 (G.splendens), 7.1897, 13.1900/1

Gaura lindamanii (Butterfly flower) reliable drought tolerant, self seeding. White butterfly flowers on long stem. Once again thee plants resent the shady nature of our garden. 13.1900/1 Front Path gardens

 Gamolepis chrysanthemoides see Euryops pectinatus , Euryops 

Geranium robertianum Herb Robert Or Stinking Bob This annual weed has fern-like foliage bearing five rounded, un-notched lavender-pink flowers. One of the longest blooming geraniums, it can flower for up to 8 months. It is hardy and the foliage and stems tend toward red. Known as Stinking Bob because it is malodorous when crushed.  Geranium robertianum, is a common species of cranesbill native to Europe and parts of Asia, North America, and North Africa. The plant has many vernacular names, including red robin, death come quickly, fox geranium, stinking Bob, squinter-pip and crow’s foot Central Lawn border

Gerbera hybrida  is a garden hybrid from the genus of plants Asteraceae (daisy family). It was named in honour of German botanist and medical doctor Traugott Gerber (1710-1743) who travelled extensively in Russia and was a friend of Carl Linnaeus. Gerbera is native to tropical regions of South America, Africa and Asia. The first scientific description of a Gerbera was made by J.D. Hooker in Curtis’s Botanical Magazine in 1889 when he described Gerbera jamesonii, a South African species also known as Transvaal daisy or Barberton Daisy. Gerbera is also commonly known as the African Daisy. The domesticated cultivars are mostly a result of a cross between Gerbera jamesonii and another South African species Gerbera viridifolia. The cross is known as Gerbera hybrida. Thousands of cultivars exist. 2 specimens a gift from Leigh-Anne Lawrence. Front Path gardens

Heliotrope arborense (Cherry Pie) Including Golden foliage types. Beautiful purple and mauve forms attractive low herbaceous shrub. Wonderful vanilla fragrance and flowers make it worthwhile. Millers garden dictionary stated it grows naturally in Peru, from whence the seeds were sent by the younger Jussieu to the royal garden at Paris, where the plants produced flowers and seeds. Introduced to Britain in 1757 Peru 1A.1885 (5 varieties), 7.1897 (H.peruvianum), 10.1855 (H.peruvianum), 13.1900/1 South Rose garden, Front Path Garden

Helichrysum italiacum syn. H. augustifolium “curry plant” Excellent grey accent plant, low growing with strong curry scent to foliage. Favours well drained sunny position. Hates the wet so we must frequently replant. 1A.1885 (H.augustifolium) South Rose garden

Hemizygia transvaalensis syn.Syncolostemon (Pink Sage). Perennial from high veld. Easily grown from cutting This species was first collected near Barberton (then Transvaal, now Mpumalanga ) by Ernest Galpin (1858-1941) banker by profession, amateur botanist and plant collector, and was named in 1897 by Rudolf Schlechter (1872-1925), German botanist and traveller. I have found this surprisingly difficult and slow to get going, much prefers moist and semi-shade. South Africa 15.Camden  Fenced Rose Garden, Magnolia garden

Hypericum androesamum possibly H. olympicum Beautiful low growing open shrub with bright yellow single flowers in Summer. Hypericum spp include St.John’s Wort. Cultivated in Chelsea-garden, in 1706. Europe, Asia, North Africa.1.1875, 1A.1885 (4 species), 7.1897 South Rose Garden, Central Shrub garden, Front path garden, NW corner

Hypoestes aristata is a fast-growing shrub that grows up to 1.5 m high. It produces soft, hairy, dark green oval leaves and has attractive lilac  pink or white  flowers borne in spike-like inflorescences. It flowers from May right through winter till early spring. South Africa, Eastern Cape in the south to tropical Africa East Border Garden

Hypoestes floribunda Erect perennial, herb or shrub, 0.3-0.9 m high. Fl. pink-purple, Apr to Aug. Of the seven varieties currently recognized in Queensland, only two have been recorded as occurring in SE Qld – H. floribunda var. floribunda is generally found in more inland areas northwards from the Darling Downs, and H. floribunda var. pubescens from the Brisbane region northwards Front Path Garden

Impatiens walleriana (busy Lizzy or balsam) Reliably pretty, tender plant which self seeds in shady positions where there is adequate moisture. Single flowers of crimson, pink and white may occur. Many garden hybrids including “New Guinea” impatiens are sold. Introduced to Britain in 1596. East India, 1.1875, 1A.1885 (I.balsamica), 2.1875, 10.1855 Containers, “Garden Bed” near plough Inn, East Border

Impatiens niamemensis Parrt Beak Impatiens Hydrangea Walk in containers  Coral Fountain, East Border

Iresine diffusa (Juba’s bush) is a variegated cultivar,species of plant in the Amaranthaceae family.  Herb 1–2 m, stem a little grooved, nodes jointed. Leaves opp, 14 x 7 cm, edge smooth some white and variegated geen-white. Flowers minute, greenish-white, panicle 40 cm long, male more open, female compact, 1 mm S. America – Argentina, Bolivia and Brazil, north through Central America to Mexico. Throughout the garden

Jasminium mesnyi (primrose or yellow Jasmine). Arching evergreen hardy shrub which may grow as a specimen or be used for hedging. China 1A.1885 ?Gelsemium Stone circle garden

Justicia adhotada (see Salvia like perennials)

Justicia brandegeana syn. Bellerephone guttata (shrimp plant) Low growing lax shrub. We have yellow and bronze flower colour varieties. Remarkably tolerant of dry shade.  There is a passing resemblence to Salvias if you squint hard.Central and South America 1.1875 (9 species Justicia) Central lawn Gardens and Border, Plough Inn, Front Path

Justicia aurea syn. Justicia umbrosa (Yellow Jacobinia, Brazilian Plume) Tall yellow flowering Justicia. Grows from stem cutting. Favours semishade. Throwing Justicias in as resembling Salvias is purely subjective as they compliment each other in a perennial shrub garden. South America  West border, Central Shrub Garden

Justicia carnea (both white and pink hybrids) Interesting tall “candles” of flower bracts on tough shrub. This low maintenance, self seeding plant introduces colour under trees in a warm climate garden. First botanically described by John Lindley in 1831. ‘A native of Rio Janeiro, whence a living plant was sent, in 1827, to the Horticultural Society, by the Right Honourable Robert Gordon.(from www.hortuscamdenensis) Central and South America.     1.1875 (J.carnea, J.alba), 1A.1885 (Jacobinia magnifica), 7.1897, 9.1851, 10.1855, 15.Camden Orchid Walk, Front Path Garden

 Justicia betonica (White) This tough, self seeding tall plant has white flowers, with a touch of pink, not unlike Salvia but more upright. I love this invasive Justicia but I think Kyleigh finds its vigour annoying. Tropical East Africa 1.1875, 7.1897 Front Path garden, gatehouse

Justicia rizzinii syn Libonia floribunda, Jacobinia pauciflora.  Lovely compact shrub with evergreen small ovate leaves and small tubular flowers of yellow/red. Brazil Central Lawn and Borders

Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea) Seeds planted each year from mid-march to late April produce this well known climbing pea with magnificent scented flowers. There are many garden hybrid including old fashioned varieties available from local supermarkets through to specialist suppliers such as “Diggers Club” in Victoria Eastern Mediterranean.1.1875, 10.1855, 13.1900/1 Containers annually

Lavandula dentata (French Lavender). By far our most successful Lavender tolerating shade and moisture. Front path Garden, Around House, Fenced Rose garden

Lavandula multifida ‘Spanish Eyes’ Finely divided foliage on this lavender which, like L. stoechus is marginally tolerant of our humid conditions. Front path garden

Lavandula stoechus (French and Italian lavenders) The stoechus varieties, including white flowering, of this well known aromatic herb survive our humid climate when English and other types fail. An evergreen with mauve-purple flowers in summer. Introduced to Britain in 1658. Mediterranean 1.1875 (L.stoechas), 1A.1885 (stoechas, vera), 2.1875, 13.1900/1,15.Camden Front path garden, Near back stairs

Linaria vulgaris (Yellow toadflax) ground covering perennial plant with tiny snap dragon like flowers of butter yellow and other shades through to pink. Europe 1A.1885, 13.1900/1 North Rose garden

Mentha × piperita var. citrate  Eau-de-cologne mint. Mentha citrata has a strong lavender odor due to the two chemical constituents, linalyl acetate (45%) and linalool (45-50%), which makes up around 90% of the oil. The leaves and flowering plant have traditionally been claimed to have analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, cholagogic, diaphoretic, and vasodilator properties. Like other members of the genus Mentha, it is best not used by pregnant women because large doses can cause miscarriage. North Lawn and border

Mentha spicata (mint) A low growing sweet aromatic herb which favours semi-shaded moist but not wet conditions. May be invasive in some positions. 1.1875 (9 species of Mentha), 1A.1885 (satureioides Brisbane pennyroyal, piperita, viridis). South Rose garden, Front path garden

Mirabilis jalapa (marvel of peru/ 4 o’clock plant) A soft stemmed perennial plant with a large underground storage organ. Beautiful flowers in pink, mauve through to orange or red open in the afternoon. Summer flowering.  South America. Eastern Borders 1A.1885

Nepeta faasennii (cat mint) A low growing, creeping herb with flowers of blue to white. Favours moist sunny position. Front path garden

Nicotiana langsdorffii (Flowering tobacco) Self-sows, bold foliage, green flowers that mix readily with other colors.Brazil. Front path Garden, Fenced Rose garden

Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum suave. Sweet Basil and bush basil. Strongly aromatic culinary herb plant. Bush basil more camphorated. Containers annually, Fenced Rose garden, behind Plough Inn. Front path garden South Rose garden

Orthosiphon stamineus syn.O.aristatus (cats whiskers)Tough summer flowering perennial with spikes of flowers in summer of mauve or white Australia and Pacific Islands.Stone circle, NE corner of Verandah, North Rose garden

Osteospermum ecklonis (African daisy) These white, mauve and sometimes purple daisies with dark blue centre are a reliable low spreading plant. Will only hold flowers open in full sun, loves the hottest position. Easily grown from cutting.South Africa Front Embankment

Pelargonium spp, P.peltatum (Garden raised hybrids of ‘Scented’, ‘Regal’ or ‘Zonal’ Geraniums) The florist’s geranium is actually a hybrid pelargonium of complex origin with two southern African species, Pelargonium inquinans and Pelargonium zonale.  Pelargonium inquinans was introduced to Britain in 1714 and P. zonale in 1710. A very popular low growing or trailing garden plant with a wide range of flower colours and forms. Buds may form throughout the year. Easily struck from cuttings for use in the garden or in pots. These plants have been collected by enthusiasts since Colonial times. Contact The Geranium and Pelargonium Society of Queensland for detail at 1.1875 (11 species, 4 var. ‘Ivy’ type, 2 var. ‘Oak Leaf’ type, 6 var. ‘5 lobed’ type, 46 var.’ Zonal’ type pelargonium), 1A.1885 (fragrans, graveolens, inquinans, peltatum, zonale, 18 Garden varieties) 2.1875, 7.1897 (many varieties), 10.1855 (22 varieties), 13.1900/1 (100s of varieties), 15.Camden

Pelargonium hortorum “Big red”, also a single pink Central Shrub garden

Penstemon x hybrida var. ‘Alice Hindley’ Tall, pink white bell like flowers on well loved traditional perennial. May be struck from cutting garden hybrid. 1A.1885 (P.gentianoides 5 varieties) South Rose garden

Perovskia atriplicifolia (Russian sage) is now just a salvia.  Salvia yangii, in fact.  There’s also a sniff of snobbery when a hard name, which you’ve remembered, and mastered, is replaced by an easy one, which anyone can manage.  I’m willing to confess to a bit of that. Russian Sage is a subshrub, rather than an herbaceous perennial, meaning that it has a woody base, but herbaceous top growth, so follows the pattern of perennials sufficiently to find its place amongst them.  The only difference in treatment is that, instead of cutting its stems right to the ground, you retain a woody skeleton of 15-20cm in height.  So far I’ve only found it to sucker around gently, though one or two gardeners have reported to me that it’s threatened a take-over bid.  Way more gardeners have lamented that they’ve never been able to make it happy.  Given its incredible contribution, I’d always recommend giving it a go.  Or another go.  Or another.But the plant itself hasn’t changed. And what a great plant it is.  While at its climax in late summer and autumn, it’s a buoyant haze of lavender-blue above lovely grey foliage. How to grow Remove old growth in late winter – spring when new stems emerge. Prune back by half after flowering in summer to encourage a second flush of flowers in autumn. Divide plants every 4 years for maximum productivity. near back stairs

Phlomis fruticosa – Jerusalem Sage  This is an evergreen perennial with silver foliage. An excellent plant for those dry, sunny areas. The tubular flowers in golden yellow are produced in clusters, around the stem, from top to bottom. Turkey North of Fenced Rose Garden LOST 2020

Phlomis russeliana     The large felt-like, heart shaped evergreen leaves, green above grey beneath, make a dense weed proof mound. The strong stiff 100cm stems are encircled with whorls of soft yellow hooded flowers. North of Fenced Rose Garden  LOST 2020

Physostegia virginiana (obedient plant, Gallipoli heath) Low growing erect plant, dormant in winter or dry weather. Flower spike in pink or white during summer. Self seeding North America.Eastern Borders  LOST 2019

Plectranthus amboinensis (Cuban Oregano) Low growing glaucous spreading ground cover plant with grey-green foliage and blue flowers spikes. Favours sunny well drained position. South and east Africa.Front Embankment

Plectranthus ecklonii has a wide distribution from Somerset east in the Eastern Cape to Barberton in Mpumalanga. It is confined to moist coastal subtropical and afrotemperate Forest and forest margins. It is common in the under-storey at forest margins or on wooded stream banks. This species is named after Christian Friedrich Ecklon (1795 – 1868), Danish pharmacist, plant collector and traveller in South Africa. Plectranthus ecklonii was first collected in 1813 by William Burchell, however Bentham described the species in 1848 based on a specimen collected by Ecklon and was unaware of the earlier collection. John Medley Wood introduced it to the Durban Botanical Gardens towards the end of the nineteenth century. It is thought that Ecklon sent seed of it to Baron Von Ludwig in Cape Town. It was the first plectranthus to be introduced to Kirstenbosch and has been growing there since 1914, shortly after the Garden was established. Tall shrub resembling a tall salvia which produces pannicles of blue, pink or white flowers in summer. Easy to propagate and care for. South Africa Central Shrub Garden, Fenced Rose garden Eastern Borders

Plectranthus ecklonii var. ‘Hawthorne Pink’ Tall salvia like perennial, pink flowering garden cultivar. Easy to grow from cutting, tolerates dry shade. Eastern Borders, Central Shrub garden

Plectranthus graveolens Suberect, creeping shrub with spikes of bright blue flowers Eastern Australia Stone Circle Garden

Plectranthus oertendahlii (standard and variegated varieties) creeping groundcover with small white flowers, mainly in shady areas Brazil Near Back Stairs, Driveway and western gardens

Plectranthus saccatus. Striking blue flowers on a tough low softstemmed shrub. Reliable. Will self seed. Great colour in the shade South Africa Driveway and Western gardens, Rock Garden near back Stairs

Plectranthus saccatus x hilliardiae ‘cape Angels’  ‘Mona Lavender’,white and pink flowering. Reliable low shrub, shade tolerant, easily struck from cutting. Garden hybrid Rock garden Near back Stairs

Primula malacoides (candle stick primula). Short lived annual which is a reliable primula in a subtropical climate.Raised stone garden annual

Polygonum capitum (Japanese knotweed) Mat forming groundcover plant which may be used to soften path edges. Small pink flowers. 1.1875 (15 species) Front Path garden

Portulaca grandiflora Low growing colourful succulent ground cover with garden hybrid varieties carrying flowers of many different colours. World wide garden hybrid. 1.1875 (7 species), 1A.1885, 10.1855 Placed annually

Ruellia squarrosa syn. Dipteracanthus squarrosus (Creeping Ruellia), Creeping groundcover with blue to violet single flowers. Ruellia squarrosa (Fenzl) Cufodontis ex E. Walker] represents a later synonym for Ruellia longepetiolata (Oerst.) Hemsl., which has priority published in 1855. Favours natural watercourses, forest edges and disturbed zones. It is a sprawling perennial herb with branches to 60cm. It has square stems which grow from underground rhizomes. Grows in sun or dry shade. Southern Mexico. East Border garden, Stone circle

Ruellia elegans  (Brazilian petunia)  This species has open-faced coral-red blossoms from late spring until autumn. a large natural range from Chile to Brazil. East Border Garden

Ruellia graecizans (red Christmas pride). Low growing shade tolerant subshrub with red bell like flowers in summer. Self seeds easily. South America Self seeded throughout the garden

Ruellia macrantha .Tall upright shrub with large leaves and pink single bell shaped flowers Brazil 1.1875 (3 Ruellia species), 1A.1885 (formosa, herbstii), 9.1851 (R.formosa), 13.1900/1 (R.elegens, R.rosea) East Border Garden

Ruellia makoyana, the monkey plant or trailing velvet plant,. It is an evergreen perennial growing to 60 cm (24 in) tall by 45 cm (18 in) wide, with white-veined hairy leaves and trumpet-shaped pink flowers in summer. Ruellia makoyana was described and the name validly published by Jules Closon in 1895. Brazil  Blue Trellis garden

Ruellia simplex, ( Mexican petunia, Mexican bluebell or Britton’s wild petunia),. It is a native of Mexico, the Caribbean, and South America. It was named and described by Carlos (Charles) Wright in ‘Flora Cubana’ in 1870. It has become a widespread invasive plant in Florida, where it was likely introduced as an ornamental before 1933. NW Corner garden, North Rose Garden

Rosmarinus officionalis (rosemary) A beautiful and hardy aromatic or culinary herb in both pink and mauve flowering forms. Relatively unhappy in our very wet weather. A culinary and medicinal herb from ancient times. Certainly grown in the garden at Camden park from 1836 probably earlier. Mediterranean 1.1875, 1A.1885, 7.1897, 15.Canden Central lawn and Borders, Eastern Borders, front Embankment

Schaueria flavicoma “Miss Melanie” Schaueria is a genus of flowering plants in the family Acanthaceae. They are endemic to Brazil, from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul. They are characterized by small elongated white or yellow flowers and narrow to thread-like green or yellow bracts. They are found mainly in rain forestssemi-deciduous mountain forests. They are pollinated by bees and hummingbirds. The genus was established by the German naturalist Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck in 1838 NW Corner

Scutellaria ventenatii low growing scrambling perennial plant, crimson flowers North America 1.1875, 1A.1885 Eastern Borders, North lawn/

Sedum acre, mat forming succulent ground cover with lime green leaves and tiny yellow flowers also a grey foliage variety. China 1.1875, 7.1897, 13.1900/1 Front Path Garden

Solidago altissima Golden Rod goldenrod is 0.5–2.0 meters tall, and is among the tallest of goldenrods, hence its common name. The stem is rigid and generally smooth. Transplanted from Fenced Rose Garden to NW corner and to new Clivea Garden near the Plough Inn (Golden Rod) low growing summer flowering perennial with bright yellow flowers. Introduced to Britain in 1699 and in the catalogue of Camden Park NSW by 1850. USA to Mexico Fenced Rose garden, Criss Cross Garden

Stachytarpheta cayenennsis (Porter weed, False verbena, Snakeweed) Perennial shrub with long spike with flowers appearing to migrate along them from the bottom up. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis was introduced to Britain in 1714, at Camden Park NSW after 1850. Mexico, Central America 15.Camden Central lawn and Borders

Stachytarpheta mutabilis syn. Verbena mutabilis (pink porterweed) Perennial shrub as for S. cayenennsis but with pink flowers. S. mutabilis is a free flowering shrub, the leaves of which had been imported from South America for the purpose of adulterating tea.  Introduced to Britain in 1801. At Camden park NSW after 1850 Brazil 15.Camden Fenced Rose garden

Streptocarpus caulescens (nodding violet) low growing perennial in the ground or in pots. Attractive mauve flowers held above the plant Africa.7.1897, 10.1855, 13.1900/1 Blue trellis garden

Symphytum x uplandicum (comfrey) A low clump forming herbaceous perennial with pendulous white or blue flowers. Primarily of medicinal interest this is also an attractive garden plant Eastern Europe.1A.1885 (S.asperrimum) Central lawn and Borders

Tagetes patula Dwarf french Marigold. Annual self seeding donor plant 1A.1885 In Containers annually

Tagetes patula “Vanilla” A cream-white flower colour marigold.

Tagetes lucida   (Mexican Tarragon) An extremely hardy and attractive herb with finely divided aromatic foliage and orange-yellow marigold like flowers. Fenced Rose garden, Criss Cross garden, Eastern Borders

Trachelospermum x hybrid syn Rhynchospermum (variegated ground cover) A common low growing landscaping plant , grown primarily for it’s hardy nature and attractive variegated foliage Plough Inn, Driveway

Tropeolum majus (nasturtium, Indian Cress) a trailing annual or short lived perennial plant with large edible leaves and brightly coloured flowers in the yellow-orange-red range. A very popular and useful plant in moist protected locations. The common or greater Indian Cress, though a native of Peru, proves a hardy annual and has been cultivated in Europe since 1684. Peru 1.1875, 1A.1885,7.1897, 10.1855, 15.Camden Fenced Rose garden, Central Shrub garden

Verbena peruviana Hardy trailing ground cover with attractive red to purple flowers, and an ideal underplanting for roses. Garden hybrids Americas.. 1.1875 (5 species, 18 garden var.), 1A.1885 (4 spp and 11 garden varieties), 10.1855 North Rose garden

Vinca major variegata Also known as periwinkle or myrtle, a vigorous evergreen sub-shrub forming a clump of erect stems bearing glossy ovate leaves and solitary violet-blue flowers 4cm wide in the leaf axils, with long rooting sterile stems making effective ground cover i lavender flowers in spring. 10.1855 Mediterranean Rain forest Corner

Viola odorata  sweet Violets Purplem white, pink and double white. Front Path garden, South Rose Garden Fenced Rose garden

What’s in a Name?

Of the garden plants described in this inventory short lived perennials and annuals may contain varietal names which do not describe the same plant as listed with the same name in catalogues from earlier times. Plants which have been collected and hybridised extensively such as types of annual (“potted colour”), Florist Chrysanthemum, Dahlias, Dianthus and sweet Peas may not resemble their genetic hybridising parents. Therefore, we have to acknowledge that only a gardener with specialist interest in collecting or breeding certain plants may be be able to reliably identify them. Doubt always remains.