Inventory of Foliage & Shade Plants, Epiphytes, Orchids, & Hardy Succulents

 FOLIAGE & SHADE PLANTS, EPIPHYTES, GINGERS,  &  HARDY SUCCULENTS       at “The Shambles” 2020

dendrobium nobile

Key for historic reference notations to Plant entries:

“Catalogue of the Plants in the Queensland Botanic Gardens”. Walter Hill, Government Printer, Brisbane 1875.                            1. 1875

“Catalogue of Plants in the two Metropolitan Gardens, The Brisbane Botanic Garden and Bowen Park (The Garden of the Queensland Acclimatization Society). Frederick Manson Bailey, Colonial Botonist, Government Printer, Brisbane 1885                                     1A. 1885

“Designed Landscapes in Queensland, 1859-1939”, Jean Sim, QUT, 1999, APPENDIX G, referred to the following plant lists:

“The Flower garden in Queensland, containing concise and practical instructions for the Cultivation of the flower garden. And the management of Pot Plants in Australia”, Albert Hockings, Slater & Co, Brisbane, 1875                                                                     2. 1875

“Cultural Industries in Queensland: Papers on the Cultivation of Useful Plants suited to the climate of Queensland:their value as food, in the arts, and in medicine; and methods of Obtaining their products” Lewis Bernays, Government printer, Brisbane , 1883, (pp 201-207, The Shade of trees)                                                                     3. 1883

“Tree Planting for Shade and Ornament: Suggestions for teachers and others interested in the Planting of Trees” Edward Shelton, Dept of Agriculture, Government Printer, Brisbane, Bulletin 17, 1892

List: Philip McMahon, Brisbane Botanic gardens Curator     4a.  1892

Ebenezer Cowley, Overseer, State Nursery, Kamerunga4b.  1892

J S Edgar , Botanic gardens , Rockhampton                 4c.   1892

William Soutter, Manager , Acclimatization society      4d.   1892

“General Catalogue of Seeds, Plants, bulbs, Tubers, trees, Climbers, etc.” Samuel Eaves, Howard, printer, Brisbane, 1897           5.    1897

“Queenslander” under ‘Horticulture’ section ‘Shrubs’, William Soutter, 18/12/1897 pp 1181                                                            6.    1897

“General descriptive Catalogue for 1874, of Fruit trees, Shrubs, Ornamental and forest trees, Etc. etc” Charles Wyatt, Frogmore Nursery, Geelong 1874                                                          7.    1874

“1896 Catalogue of Flower roots”. Law, Somner & Co., Melbourne, 1896                                                                                      8.   1896

“Catalogue of Plants for Sale by Michael Guilfoyle” Exotic Nursery, Double bay, Sydney 1851                                                       9.   1851

“Catalogue of Plants for Sale at the Victoria Nursery, Richmond” George Brunning, Melbourne, 1855                                                  10.  1855

“Report on the Progress and Condition of the Botanic Garden and Government Plantations, 1873”, R.Schomburgk, W.C.Cox: Government Printer, Adelaide, 1874                                                          11.  1874

“Botanic Gardens, Brisbane, Catalogue of Plants 1962”, Brisbane city Council, Brisbane, 1962                                                        12. 1962

“Federation Gardens: Plant lists, Compiled from Searl & Sons General Catalogue 1901, Seeds, Plants & Bulbs for Sydney; Pearce Bros.Descriptive Catalogue and Guide 1900; Robert Little & Co’s Catalogue of Flower seeds Sydney 1900: Rumsey’s 1882 Catalogue (Roses) Sydney 1882 www.heritage.nsw.gov.au                    13. 1900/1

“Talgai Homestead, Plant Ledger, commenced in 1868-1907 by Ellen and George Clark. Additions after 1907-1942 George Carr Clark, 1945-1965 Bardwell”                                                                     14. 1868                                              

www.hortuscamden.com ,Hortus camdenensis: an illustrated catalogue of plants collected by Sir William Macarthur at Camden Park, NSW, Australia between about c.1820 & 1861 / by Colin Mills     15. Camden

“The Garden Plants of China” Peter Valder, Florilegium, Sydney 1999      16. China

The title of this Inventory page suggests a grab bag of all sorts of unrelated hardy ornamental and interesting plants. This is appropriate because many of these plants came to us as nameless foundlings, donated by enthusiastic friends and neighbours or seem to have brought themselves. The type of plant catalogued in this section often is found as the undemanding background and space filler of a shady garden in Queensland. Many caused excitement and curiosity to 19th century plant hunters and gardeners but are ignored as ‘commonplace’ today. They persist because they are easy to transplant and share and often tolerant of neglect in a remnant garden or a very busy one.

Acalypha reptens. Low growing, groundcover plant with bright red catkins. India, Sri-Lankha, Malaysia.Near back stairs

Aeonium Var. ‘Swartzkoff’ .Dramatic rosettes of black dark green leaves on a low growing succulent. Canary Islands-Mediterranean.Front embankment

The 1885 Brisbane reference 1A.1885 lists Agave americana, filifera, glaucescens, heterocantha, ixtlioides, kirchovei, milleri, picta, potatorum, pugioniformis, rumphi, salmiana and A.xylonacantha

Agave attenuata Large grey green rosettes of succulent leaves.. Drought tolerant with great structure and a traditional garden favourite, or garden survivor. Central Mexico.1.1875 (9 species of Agave)

Agave americana marginata (American Century plant) Rosettes of long succulent leaves, pale cream leaf margin, hard sharp terminal leaf spines.  Occasionally produces a very tall flower spike. Johnson’s Dictionary gives the date of introduction of variegata to Britain as 1640 and was first botanically described by Linnaeus in 1853. Texas, mexico. 1.1875 (9 species of Agave incl A.americana), 9.1851 Front embankment

Agave weberi Front embankment

Aglaonema commutatum “Red Valentine”  Chinese evergreen, is an evergreen perennial that generally resembles dieffenbachia (dumb cane) in appearance. Thick, elliptic to lance-shaped, dark green leaves with attractive pink blotches. It rarely flowers. Each axillary flower (typical arum family) features a small creamy white spadix enclosed by a pale green spathe, usually in late summer to early fall. Clusters of red berries follow the flowers. Phillipines West of Fenced Rose Garden

Alocasia cuprea (Elephant ears) Large spear or heart shaped leaves give this popular landscaping plant it’s name. A dramatic plant in a tropical, subtropical setting in semi-shade with adequate water Borneo.1A.1885 Rain forest Walk

Alocasia brisbanensis syn. Alocasia macrorrhiza (cunjevoi) These grow in moist shade with their large heart shaped leaves. South Asia (Giant Taro)-Australia (Cunjevoi). 1.1875 (10 species Alocasia incl A.macrorhiza), 1A.1885 (Colocasia macrorrhiza), 13.1900/1 West garden near back stairs, Blue trellis garden The Brisbane reference 1A.1885 lists Aloe arborescens, brevifolia, cooperi, dichotoma, glauca, grandidentata, humilis, inermis, mitriformis, plicatilis, saponaria, serrulata, vera and virens.Aloe ferox (Tree aloe) Succulent spear shaped leaves. In our garden these have been  displayed  with Agaves , Kalanchoes, Sedum, Aeonium etc which has followed the example of early 20th century planting fashion. Very attractive red flower spikes. First botanically described by Miller in his Gardener’s Dictionary in1768. South Africa. 1.1875 (A.arborescens), 1A.1885, 9.1851, 10.1855, 13.1900/1 Front Embankment

Aloe vera Low growing spear shaped leaves, popular for use of gelatinous leaf extract as an external medication for skin complaints. North Africa, Mediterranean, Canary Islands.1A.1885 Central Shrub Garden, Frone Embankment.

Anthurium andreanum.  We have a collection of these hardy epiphytic  plants  grown easily in shade outdoors in our garden. Our named cultivars include “Spice”, “Dynamite Red”, “White Winner”, “Prince of Orange”. We received one species as a gift from members of the International Tropical Foliage and Garden Club when they visited ‘The Shambles’ for a meeting. The name of the species andraeanum has is the Neo-Latin version of the last name of Édouard François André (17 July 1840 – 25 October 1911). He was a French architect, a great landscape architect (designer amongst others of Sefton Park in England and Luxembourg Castle) and botanist. Edouard François André, on a mission in the Colombian rainforest, discovered this species, which he sent to Belgium, from where it slowly spread to the rest of the world. Flamingo Flower in cultivation lives from 5 to 10 years, but if it is divided to propagated lives for decades. Anthurium andraeanum is a herbaceous, perennial and rhizomatous, evergreen plant of small height and slow annual growth rate. It is spherical in shape, upright in habit with open symmetrical foliage of coarse texture. It is cultivated for its flowers, which are actually bracts (Spath and Spadix), whose lifetime on the plant reaches 25 to 30 days (in tropical areas up to 40). Tropical America 1.1875, 1A.1885 (16 species and hybrids).13.1900/1 (A.andreanum, crystallinum, cordifolium, scherzeranum, waracqueanum) West Anthurium walk, Rain forest Walk, Fernery

Anthurium hookeri (Birds Nest Anthurium) This is apparently a variable Anthurium species, Anthurium hookeri was described to science by German botanist Carl Sigismund Kunth (1788 -1850).  Ours has long leaf blades radiating from the base and a long dark spath. Many aroid species exhibit natural variation and not every leaf of every specimen will always look the same, however there are very distinctive characteristics which can be used to determine if a plant is, or is not the species, Anthurium hookeri , including that the the berries produced on a pollinated spadix (infructescence) are not red but are instead white. We are not really certain of the identity of our Birdsnest Anthurium and it in fact may be one of the hybrid plants more closely related to Anthurium schlechtendalii or Anthurium plowmanii than to Anthurium hookeriEastern Caribbean islands found in the West Indies northern Venezuela . Plough Inn, Rainforest corner.

Aglaonema marantifolium (Chinese lucky plant) Patterned foliage plant similar in appearance to Dieffenbachia. 1A.1885, 13.1900/1 Rain forest Garden, Blue Trellis garden

Ardisia crenata Low growing shrub, small white flowers and clusters of decorative red berries. Ardisia crenulata was first cultivated in England in 1809. At Camden Park NSW it was received per the ship ‘Sovereign’ February 1831.  South America.1.1875 (A.cenulata), 9.1851, 13.1900/1,15.Camden Central Shrub Garden

Ardisia macrocarpa ‘Mystique’ Evergreen rounded shrub that grows to 2m. ‘Mystique’ has glossy green foliage and is covered with dainty tight pink bud flowers for many months of the year. Flowers followed by small, bright red fruits that are edible. Eastern Himalaya.  Central Shrub garden

Asperdistra eliator (cast iron plant) Very much out of fashion but a tough foliage plant. Tolerant of dry shade, flood, fire and drought. Known in China as Zhizhubandan (spider embracing eggs), a popular container plant. It may have been imported to Britain by 1824 Japan. 1A.1885, 13.1900/1, 16.China West garden, near back stairs.

Asystasia gangetica (Blue form of Chinese Violet) Ground-covering herbaceous plant Malaysia Plough Inn, North Rose garden 1A.1885

Asystasia gangetica micrantha (White form of Chinese Violet) Groundcovering herb South Africa Driveway 1A.1885

Begonia coccinea (tree or Cane begonia) Tall growing begonia with serrated leaves and cluster of pink, crimson or white flowers. There are varieties with leaf patterns, spots or different leaf colours. Easy to strike from cutting. Introduced to Britain in 1842 where it blossomed at Mr. Veitch’s Nursery soon after it was received Brazil.  Refer to Queensland Begonia Society www.qcgc.net 1A.1885 (B.sanguinea), 13.1900/1,15.Camden Orchid Walk, Blue trellis garden, Rain forest Walk

Begonia fuchsioides Low growing begonia , arching canes with bright red fuchsia like flower clusters. It was collected in New Grenada by Mr. Purdie on behalf of the Horticultural Society in 1845 during his mission for the Royal Gardens of Kew. New Grenada 1A.1885 (B.fuchsioides), 10.1855 (shrubby Begonia), 15.Camden East border garden, Near Wishing well

Begonia luxurians (palm leaf Begonia) Tall rhizomatous begonia with palmate leaves Brazil Blue trellis garden near wishing well

Begonia masoniana, Iron cross begonia, is a species of plant in the family Begoniaceae, native to southern China and northern Vietnam. Each heavily textured, bristly, light green leaf bears a reddish-brown marking resembling the Iron Cross used on shields and flags during the Crusades of medieval times. Their pinkish-white or pale green flowers appear periodically,
but they are fairly insignificant and usually go unnoticed. It was originally described from cultivated plants of unknown origin and was only much later rediscovered in the wild. Southern China , Northern Vietnam . West of Fenced Rose garden

Begonia rex Many cultivars Low growing Begonia noted for ornamental leaf patterns and borders. 1A.1885 Blue trellis Garden near wishing well

Begonia rex cultorum ‘Arctic Breeze’ cultivar with grey to red foliage Near Back Stairs

Begonia sempreflorens Bedding or Florists Begonia “wax type” because of the waxy look to the leaves. These begonias are grown mostly as bedding plants and annuals but are really a perennial shrub type of begonia in areas that don’t freeze Brazil. Near Back Stairs.

Begonia var. ‘Red dragon’ Rhizomatous begonia var. B.fuchsioides with erect growth and red flowers. Garden hybrid Near Wishing Well

Beaucarnea recurvata, syn. Nolina Ponytail Palm.  Strap like foliage and a swollen base  with a palmlike shape. Introduced to Europe in the 1870s.  Eastern Mexico

Bletilla striata ‘Chinese Ground Orchid’. Zi Lan in Chinese, Cultivation in England from around 1794.China, Japan Fernery 16.China

Brassia caudata (Spider Orchid)s, trialled as epiphytic Orchid walk, Blue Trellis Garden

Brassia “Daie Loo” x Miltassia “Christmas Eve” Mauve hybrid Orchid

Brassia “Rex Okika” yellow flowering Spider Orchid

Bromeliads: 1.1875 (Bromelia 4 spp, Aechmea 2 spp, Billbergia 6 spp, Vriesia 1 spp, Tillandsia 5 spp) 1A.1885 (Bromelia 1, Aechmea 2spp, Billbergia 5 spp, Pitcairnea 3 spp, Tillandsia 2 spp), 13.1900/1

Most of the large number of Bromeliads in our garden are in the ground or tied on as epiphytes under trees. They have come to us as anonymous foundlings and all are unnamed varieties. For detailed information visit www.bromsqueensland.com (Bromeliad Society of Queensland). West Garden/hydrangea walk, Orchid Walk, Blue trellis garden, Rain forest garden, Araucaria walk.

Bromeliads

Aechmea fasciata (urnplant) Brazil 1A.1885 (2 species) pink inflouresence.

Aechmea gamosepala (Matchstick Bromeliad) bright-green leaves with smooth edges. It forms clumps in a short period of time and bears upright inflorescences with pink bracts and bluish purple flowers, Brazil

Aechmea weilbachii long lasting purple flowers with red bracts from autumn to spring. It has smooth edges leaves. Brazil

 Alcantarea extensa Large Bromeliad Brazil

Billbergia nutans (Queens tears) Interesting pendulous   flowers 10.1855 Pathway West of House

 Billbergia pyramidalis on the ground, they quickly create large clumps, and when planted at the base of a tree, they slowly will climb the trunk. The bright pink flowers on an individual plant last less than one month, but nearly all of the plants will come into bloom at the same time in the late summer 1A.1885 (5 species) Central and Southern America

 Neoregelia carolinae. South America Many varieties in our garden, hardy epiphyte but most as understory plants in Western side of the garden.

 Neoregelia medusa The genus name is for Eduard August von Regel, Director of St. Petersburg Botanic Gardens in Russia. South America

 Portea petropoitiana  Genus is named for Dr. Marius Porte, a nineteenth-century French naturalist who died in 1866 in Manilla while on a collection expedition for the National Museum of Natural History. It produces spectacular tall flower spikes with rosy bracts and inflorescences of narrow, blue to violet flowers around 35mm long that make a powerful display when in full bloom during the warmer months. Spined Leaves. Brazil

 Tillandsia bulbosa Bulbous airplant. With long lasting inflorencense. South America 1A1885  Wishing well

Vriesia splendens (flaming sword) The genus name is for Willem Hendrik de Vriese, Dutch botanist, physician (1806–1862) Central and South America 1A.1885 West Garden/hydrangea walk, Orchid Walk, Blue trellis garden, Rain forest garden, Araucaria walk.

Bryophyllum spp (mother of millions), Succulant with grey foliage, extremely hardy Africa, Madagascar 1A.1885 Front embankment

Bulbine frutescens (burn jelly plant) Low growing plant with long succulent leaves and yellow flowers on a tall stem. Ground covering. South East Africa East border garden, front path Garden

Caladium bicolor beautiful patterned heart shaped leaves. Requires moist soil, disappearing in our winter to reappear in summer. Said in the Hortus Kewensis to be introduced by Messrs. Lee and Kennedy, Nurserymen at Hammersmith, in the year 1773, and flowered in the garden of Mr. Fonnereau, at East-Sheen, in 1778. South America 1.1875 (33 species), 1A.1885 (24 species and Cultivars), 13.1900/1 Fenced Rose garden

Calathea lancifolia  (rattlesnake plant) bright green, wavy leaves are striped with alternating ovals of dark green and accented by a rich purple underside. Brazil.

Calathea leitzei ‘ Fusion White” Calathea fusion white is a tropical plant from Brazil, Guyana, Colombia and Nicaragua. Its leaves are finely “brushstrokes” of green, lilac and white. Collected at Kew Botanic gardens in 1888.  West of Fenced Rose garden.

Calathea orbifolia  Bolivia Araucaria walk

Calathea roseopicta ”Dottie” Rose-painted Calatheaa short herbaceous and evergreen perennial that grows to about 15-30 cm tall and spread as wide. It is clump-forming Brazil Plough Inn

Calathea rufibarba, Velvet Calathea Brazil Araucaria Walk

Calathea  fasciata Large rounded leaves with predominant rib pattern. A wonderful calathea for pot plants or under-story plantings. Araucaria Walk

Calathea makoyana.(Zebra plant) Patterned foliage for shaded garden. Tropical Americas 1.1875, 1A.1885, 13.1900/1 (5 species) Blue trellis garden, Rain Forest walk

Callisia fragrans (Inch Plant) Callisia fragrans, commonly known as the Basket Plant, Chain Plant or Inch Plant, is a species of the Callisia genus, in the Commelinaceae family. Basket plant is native to South America. Mexico.Criss cross garden, Front embankment

Ceratostigma willmottiana (Chinese plumbago) Low growing trailing evergreen with bright blue single flowers in summer. It is a native of China, and was discovered by Mr. Fortune, growing on the ruined ramparts of Shangai. Obtained from Veitch’s Nursery, brought out from England by Captain P. P. King in 1849 to Camden park NSW.  Believed by Macarthur to be a new introduction at that time.  It was also received from Kew Gardens in the same shipment.   China. 1A.1885 (C.plumbainoides, Plumbago larpentae).15.Camden East Border gardens

Ceropegia woodii.(Chain of Hearts).Tiny glaucous leaves in chins, commonly used in hanging baskets. Fernery

Cheilocostus speciosus, syn Hellenia speciosa syn. Costus speciosus (crêpe ginger), is a species of flowering plants in the family Costaceae. Costus speciosus is commonly called Crepe Ginger because the white, crepe like flowers are carried on top of red cones or bracts. It’s one of the larger growing varieties. Costus grow from a rhizome and each produces a single flower. It’s important that the rhizome be kept dry during winter, but in spring, when growth starts, it should be well fertilised and watered. These plants differ from the common ginger by having only one row of spirally arranged leaves. The flowers appear in late summer or early autumn, and are quite unusual looking, forming large red cone-shaped bracts, with several, pure white, crinkled flowers protruding from each cone. The plant has many historical uses in ayuveda, where the rhizome has been used to treat fever, rash, asthma, bronchitis, and worms. It is mentioned in the kama sutra as an ingredient in a cosmetic to be used on the eyelashes to increase sexual attractiveness. It is used to treat kidney problems and other urinary problems in Mizo Traditional Medicine. It was used as a traditional medicine by Malays when evil spirits have possessed a body, as well as for the treatment of high fever, smallpox and as a purgative.

South East Asia from India to China. It is now naturalized throughout the tropics.  Below North Verandah

Chlorophytum (variegated and standard Spider Plant  syn. airplane plant, St. Bernard’s lily, spider ivy, ribbon plant, hen and chickens) is a flowering perennial herb, reliable and tough in various locations, as a border plant in dry shade. Plantlets form at end of stems.South Africa 13.1900/1 East Border Garden, Gatehouse near letter box

Chlorophytum orchidastrum ‘Green-Orange SYN. Chlorophytum amaniense ‘Fire Flash’ SYN. Chlorophytum orchidantheroides. common names include Mandarin Plant, Fire Glory and Sierra Leone Lily. A distant cousin to the Chlorophytum comosum Spider Plant with a rather exotic look. A stunning heart of orange stems is surrounded my mid-green leaves and like all spider plants it is easy to grow and care for. Chlorophytum Green Orange stores water in its roots, making it resistant to periods of drought and neglect Tanzania  West of fenced rose garden

Codiaeum variegatum (Croton).C. var. ‘Stoplight’, ‘Rina’,’Captain Kidd’ There are a large number of croton varieties based on leaf colour, pattern and form. These colourful plants continue to be very popular with gardeners and plant collectors. Pacific Islands, Malaysia, Australia 1.1875, 1A.1885 (Croton insularis, C.tiglium, Codlaeum variegatum 11 varieties), 5.1897, 13.1900/1 Blue trellis garden, Araucaria walk

Coleus blumei SEE ENTRY BELOW Plectranthus scutellarioides.

Coelogyne flaccida. ( possibly C.cristata) An orchid of the eastern Himalayas, found at lower altitudes (1000-1700 m) than Coelogyne cristata. The cream flowers, up to nine per pendant inflorescence, measure 20-30 mm across. If left undisturbed they multiply into large specimen plants in as little as five years. Although they may begin life as pot plants, they quickly spread beyond the confines of the pot until eventually it is completely concealed. In Gordonia axillaris behind the house

Cordylline Australis “Red sensation” deep red foliage all year round. It has thin, long hardy leaves that branch off the main stem. Fenced Rose garden

Cordyline fruticosa Rubra Red foliage Cordylline, from cuttings at the Montville Uniting Church Garden. west of Fenced RoseGarden

Cordyline petiolaris (broad leafed palm lily) Reliable semishade plant under trees. Trouble free tolerate dry shade.Eastern Australia Orchid Walk

Cordyline terminalis Tall growing understory plant with many varieties based on leaf colour. There are varieties with red, burgundy, cream, brown solid or striped colour. A popular landscaping plant. Easily struck from stem cutting. Polynesian Islands 1.1875 (C.Australis, C.stricta), 1A.1885 (39 species and varieties), 13.1900/1 Blue trellis garden, Rain Forest walk, Araucaria walk

The Brisbane reference 1A.1885 lists Cordylline albo-lineata, amabilis, australis, baptistii, belmoreana, brownii, chelsonii, congesta, cooperi, crispata, cunninghamii, duffei, ferea, gayii, gloriosa, goldieana, gracilis, guilfoylei, hendersonii, hybrida, indivisa, jaspidea, macarthuri, magnifica, Mrs.Hoskins, nigricans, patula, Queens Victoria, regina, robinsoniana,rubra, striatifolia, stricta, shepherdii, terminalis, turneri, wrightii, and youngii

Costus amazonica variegata Soft stemmed clump forming plant with dramatic variegated foliage. Shade tolerant 1A.1885 (C.elegans, C.malorticanus, C.speciosus), 13.1900/1 Rain forest walk

Ctenanthe lubbersianna Tall stems with ovate leaf blades. Dramatic red flowers appear Brazil Orchid walk, Blue trellis garden

1885 Brisbane Botanic and Acclimatization garden inventories list 18 Maranta species, 2 Calatheas, 3 Heliconias, 4 Alpineas,3 Costus 5 Kaempferia,2 Hedychium, 2 Zingiber and Stromanthe sanguinea . Tropical foliage plants are found throughout this Catalogue.

The 1885 Brisbane catalogue 1A.1885, lists Cymbidium albuciflorum, canaliculatum, eburneum, gigantium, speciosum and suave.13.1900/1

Cymbidium hybrids. Long strappy leaves, tall flower spikes some quite spectacular flower colour and patterns on flower tongue. Probably the plant introduced to Britain in 1789 as C. aloifolium. It occurs in many forms. Cymbidium aloifolium was part of a consignment of plants sent from Kew by John Bidwill in November 1843 to Camden Park NSW. Garden hybrid. Refer Queensland Orchid society. www.qos.org.au 13.1900/1,15.Camden Blue trellis Garden, potted near back stairs

Cymbidium madidum, commonly known as the giant boat-lip orchid, is a plant in the orchid family and is endemic to north-eastern Australia. It is a clump-forming epiphyte or lithophyte with crowded pseudobulbs, each with between four and eight flat, strap-shaped, thin leaves and up to seventy olive green flowers with the sepals and petals curving forwards. It is found in moist habitats in eastern Queensland and north-eastern New South Wales.Cymbidium madidum was first formally described in 1840 by John Lindley who published the description in Edwards’s Botanical Register. Fenced Rose Garden in Melaleuca, and in Persimmon

Cymbidium suave Beautiful long green flower spikes on epiphytic orchid with strappy leaves, spring flowering. These may be naturalized in a log or in cymbidium mixture in a pot. Introduced to Britain in 1826. At Camden Park NSW from 1850. Australia 1A.1885,15.Camden Blue trellis garden

Degarmoara Flying High “Hawii” colourful hybrid Orchid.

The 1885 Brisbane catalogue (1A.1885) lists 45 different Dendrobium species, most Australian. The list includes 3 varieties of Dendrobium bigibbum, the floral emblem of Queensland.

Dendrobium densiflorum  Orchid with long cascading chain of cream flowers with golden yellow tongue. Dendrobium densiflorum is a species of calistra type Dendrobium widespread throughout south east Asia, and ranges from India to Vietnam and Southwest to China. A mature plant can grow from 30cm to 45cm high. The arching to pendulous inflorescence forms near the nodes near the top of the cane and often have 50-100 flowers that are up to 5cm. They are usually longer then the plant but like most callistra type dens they are short lasting.They can be grown on a mount. 2 ordered June 2020 www.qos.org.au 1A.1885, 13.1900/1  In Magnolia champac and Lagerstroemia speciosus

Dendrobium speciosum syn. Thelychiton speciosus (King orchid or Rock Orchid) Spectacular flowering epiphytic orchid on rocks or in trees. Cascading spikes of flowers from cream through to yellow in spring. Australia Refer www.qos.org.au 1.1875, 1A.1885 (D.speciosum var. delicatum, fusiforme, hillii, nitidum), 13.1900/1 Potted near back stairs

Dendrobium nobile Reliable soft cane epiphytic orchids. We have many unnamed flower colour varieties from mauve, pink and white range. A trouble free orchid flowering in spring. Introduced to Britain c.1836 by Loddiges’ nursery. Requested from Loddiges’ Nursery on 1st February, 1849 for Camden Park NSW and obtained from them, brought out from England by Captain P. P. King in that year. India www.qos.org.au 1A.1885, 13.1900/1,15.Camden Orchid walk, West Garden, near back stairs, Blue trellis garden, Rain forest walk

Dendrobium kingianum Epiphytic orchids with small flowers of mauve through to white depending on variety. Discovered by John Bidwill, the first specimens were taken by him to England and first flowered at Loddiges’ nursery in 1844. At Camden Park NSW Macarthur probably obtained it from Bidwill or when on a collecting trip around Port Stephens with Bidwill and Philip Parker King, after whom it was named.  Australia www.qos.org.au 1.1875, 1A.1885 (2 varieties). 15.Camden Potted near back stairs, Orchid Walk, Rain forest walk.

Dendrobium monophyllum F.Mueller. 1858 (Dendrobium tortile Alan Cunningham 1839).  Lily of the Valley Orchid.  Found in Queensland and New South Wales Australia on exposed rock faces, open forests and on the outer branches of rainforest trees as well as coastal forest at elevations of sealevel to 1000 meters as a miniature to small sized, cool to hot growing epiphyte or lithophyte that requires high light and constant air movement and has an erect stem that becomes ridged with age carrying 1 to rarely 2, oval, thin, dark green leaves and blooms in the summer and early fall on an erect, 2 to 8″ [5 to 10 cm] long inflorescence that arises from near the apex of the newest mature pseudobulb and carries from 3 to 20, nodding, bell-shaped, long-lasting and sweet smelling yellow flowers  Orchid Walk

Dendrobium nindii, blue antler orchid, is an epiphytic or lithophytic orchid. It has erect, cylindrical, leafy pseudobulbs with leathery, dark green leaves and up to twenty mauve or violet flowers with darker veins on the labellum. From northeastern Australia and sporadically in New Guinea where it is found in mangroves in hot steamy low lying coastal swamps at elevations of sealevel to 200 meters and is a large to giant sized, hot growing epiphyte with basally swollen, tapering towards the apex stems with blackish brown with purple stripes carrying 5 to 15 in the upper-half, dark green, elliptic to ovate, erect to spreading, distichous, alternating, rigid leaves. They recieve high light and at times salt spray as they grow overhanging the sea. The bloom season is in the summer and early fall on a 16″ [40 cm] long, erect, racemose, several to many [8 to 25] flowered, inflorescence, with fragrant long-lasting flowers, that arises from the upper nodes of the cane and needs bright sunlight to initiate blooming.  W. Hill 1874  In Lagerstroemia speciosum, fenced rose garden

Dieffenbachia amoena (Dumbcane) a tall plant with decorative leaf pattern South America 1.1875, 1A.1885 (D.amabilis, baraquini, bausei, bowmanii, chelsonii, gigantia, lanceolata, leopoldi, pearcei, sequina, splendens, weirii). 13.1900/1 (6 species and varieties) Blue trellis garden, Rain forest walk, Araucaria walk

Dichorisandra thyrsiflora or blue ginger is a tropical plant which resembles ginger in growth and habit, but is actually related to the spiderworts (the genus Tradescantia). The plant is native to the tropical woodlands of North, Central and South America, specially in Atlantic Forest vegetation in Brazil. Of the family Commelinaceae, they are cultivated for their handsome spotted stems, large shiny foliage which is held horizontally, surmounted by striking blue flowers.It was first described by the naturalist Johann Christian Mikan in 1823.It was first grown in England in 1822, and is recorded from Sir William MacArthur’s catalogue in 1857 of plants he grew in Camden southwest of Sydney. It has become naturalised in a small region of northeastern New South Wales in Australia. Tall shade tolerant plant with intense blue flowers. Not a ginger at all but a member of the tradescantia or ‘wandering jew’ family. Strikes easily from cutting. Introduced to Britain in 1822. Brazil 1.1875, 1A.1885, 13.1900/1, 15.Camden Front path Garden, East border garden, Orchid walk, Blue trellis garden, Araucaria walk

Dracaena deremensis var. longii Tall plant with long spear like leaves with pale marginal accent. A favourite in old gardens. Strikes easily from stem cuttings tropical Americas 1.1875 (24 Draecena spp), 1A.1885 (D.augustifolia, draco, rumphii), 10.1855 (D. Australis ?Cordylline, D.mutans),5.1897, 7.1897, 9.1851, 13.1900/1 Blue trellis garden

Dracaena godseffiana syn  Dracaena surculose  elliptic leaves with pointed apex, 8cm (3inch) long and 4cm (1.5 inch) wide on thin but wiry stems. The leaves are dark green spotted with cream. New leaves appear as tightly rolled cones, unfurling to show beautiful creamy yellow markings. western tropical Africa rainforest  NW Garden, NE Corner

Dracaena marginata Tall plant with long thin stiff leaves with longitudinal colour accents Tropical Americas 13.1900/1 Blue trellis Garden, Araucaria walk

Dracaena reflexa Tall plant with mid green strap like leaves recurved downward tropical Americas Orchid Walk, Blue trellis Garden, Rain forest gardens

Drimiopsis maculata (Leopard lily) South Africa Blue Trellis Garden

Echeveria hybrid Mexico Front path garden

Epidendrum ibaguense (crucifix orchid) Orange, yellow, red and mauve forms of this tough sun tolerant epiphytic orchid. This plant is an old garden survivor and easy to propagate from offsets. Tropical Americas. Near North East corner of House.

Epiphremnum aureus “Pothos Snow Queen” Epipremnum aureum is commonly called golden pothos or devil’s ivy, is native to the Solomon Islands. Our variety has produces abundant white rather than yellow-marbled foliage. In its native habitat, it climbs tree trunks by aerial rootlets and tumbles along the ground as a ground cover. West of Fenced Rose garden.

Euphorbia milii low growing semi succulent shrub with fierce thorns along the stem and terminal flowers. Introduced to Britain in 1826 and available in Australian gardens from the 1840s. It does not enjoy our wet climate. Madagascar 1.1875. 1A.1885 (E.bojeri) potted

Evolvulus pilosus var. ‘Blue Eyes’ low growing groundcover plant Bright blue single flowers in summer. Tropical Africa.Front Embankment

Ficus pumila (Creeping Fig) Clinging wall covering climbing fig. Initially the leaves are quite small and the leaf cover is dense. Then as the fig gains altitude the leaves become larger. Can be invasive.Japan, China 1A.1885 Pandorea trellis near back stairs and adjacent rockery

Hamalocladium platyclaudum syn Muehlenbeckia platyclada (Ribbon bush , Tapeworm plant) So called “bad hair day plant” becuase of it’s flat foliage trailling with weeping habit, somewhat like a poor wig. The long segmented stems are perfectly flat, and are smooth and durable. Small greenish-white flowers are borne at the stem joints in winter  followed by tiny red fruit. Soloman Islands. Orchid Walk

Hedychium Coronarium (white flowering ginger, Garland flower) Lovely perfumed flowers on a tall plant with large leaves. Shade tolerant. Introduced to Britain in 1791. This plant, probably of Chinese origin, is very much cultivated in the Malaya and India for its fragrant flowers. Macarthur included Hedychium coronarium in an order for Camden Park NSW to Loddiges’ nursery in 1845.China. India 1.1875, 1A.1885, 7.1897 (?H. corymbosa), 8.1896, 13.1900/1, 15.Camden Near back stairs

Hedychium flavum Syn. H. gardnerianum (yellow flowering ginger) . Reliable in shade and forming clumps with tall stems and large leaves. This very striking plant was introduced about the year 1823 from India, where it was discovered by Wallich in Nepal, in the Valley of Katmandu. Hedychium gardnerianum was certainly sent to Australia by John Bidwill, probably to Camden, as part of a consignment from Kew, in November 1843. India 1.1875, 13.1900/1, 15.Camden West garden, Orchid Walk

Hemigraphis exotica “Polywaffle” compact, prostrate, evergreen tropical perennial with small, dark green and burgundy leaves and tiny white flowers. The oval leaves are crinkled with curled edges and look rough and rigid but feel soft to the touch. East Border Garden

Heterocentron elegans (Spanish shawl) pretty mauve flowers in spring on a low growing trailing or ground covering shade plant.Central America 1.1875, 7.1897 Rockery garden near back stairs

Impatiens niamniamensis ( Congo cockatoo) grows about 60–90 centimetres (24–35 in) long. This evergreen, perennial species has an erect, succulent, brown stem resembling wood. Leaves are simple, ovate-oblong or elliptical, spirally arranged, about 10 cm long. This plant produces bright and colourful bird-shaped flowers with a long, curled nectar spur. These unusual flowers are usually scarlet red and yellow and can reach a length of about 3.5 centimetres (1.4 in). Fruits are explosive capsules of about 14–16 mm. Tropical Africa Cuttings

Impatiens repens (Golden Dragon Impatiens) It is considered to be extinct in the wild due to habitat destruction. The bright yellow flowers look like a fiercely roaring golden dragon. The thick fleshy stems are red which contrasts beautifully with the dark green leaves. Parts of this plant are used in Sri Lankan traditional medicine for treating epilepsy. Seems to have been described first in Western Horticulture by A.Moon in 1824 Sri Lanka  Front Path Garden , West of Fenced rose garden

Indigofera hirsuta? Indigofera decora (False Indigo) Low growing herbaceous plant with attractive pink flowers. Called Ting teng  (Courtyard Vine) in China. Robert fortune introduced this plant to Britain from china in 1845 1A.1885, 16.China Path near back stairs

Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. Our garden varieties are most likely this species. The genus was first described in 1763 by the botanist Michel Adanson. Kalanchoe was brought from Madagascar to Paris in 1927 and turned into a houseplant by the German seed merchant Robert Blossfeld. Today, Blossfeld’s name is attached to the species Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. This plant was one of the first plants in space, sent to the Soviet space station Salyut 1 in 1971. The plants were brought up to the station to increase the mood of the crew. We have Red, yellow, orange, and mauve forms on a low growing succulent which does best in sun, with free draining soil. Madagascar, Africa. 1A.1885, 13.1900/1 front Path garden, front embankment, Rockery garden near back stairs

Leea coccinea ‘ Hawaiian Holly’ . The Leea is a relative of the Fatsia. The burgundy Leea, also known as Hawaiian Holly, has bronzy red foliage. Leea’s are a shrubby plant bearing large leaves with each leaf divided into numerous pointed leafletsThe genus was named by Linnaeus after James Lee, the Scottish nurseryman based in Hammersmith, London who introduced many new plant discoveries to England at the end of the 18th centuryGolden Fern (not identified). Burma NW Corner rainforest garden

Lepismium cruciforme var. ‘Anceps’  Lepismium is a genus of mostly epiphytic cacti, with a dozen species. They are found in tropical South America.They typically grow as hanging masses of many-branched stems that branch off from the middle of the stems (Mesotonic). The stems vary from flat, to angled, to rounded in cross-section. Flowers arise along the sides of the stems and often line the entire length of the stem on both sides. The flowers themselves are relatively small, though generally larger than those in the similar genus Rhipsalis.   Lepismium is a genus of mostly epiphytic cacti, with a dozen species. They are found in tropical South America. Hanging Basket

Lepismium houllletiana a species of plant in the family Cactaceae. It is found in Argentina, Brazil, and possibly Bolivia. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest. It is threatened by habitat loss.  Bushy, hanging, up to 2 m and longer. Stems first cylindric, following part leaflike, this often alternating. South America. Hanging Basket

Miltassia Charles M Fitch “Izumi” This is a hybrid between Brassia verrucosa and Miltonia spectabilis

Monstera deliciosa A large leaf of perforated with oval windows, at times on quite a thick stemmed trailing or climbing plant. Edible fruit if used correctly Mexico-Central America 1.1875, 1A.1885, 13.1900/1 Criss-Cross garden, Near Plough inn

Nandina domestica (Sacred Bamboo). Delicate clump forming erect plant with red foliage in winter. Summer flowering China-Japan Introduced to Europe in 1804. 1A.1885, 7.1897, 9.1851, 13.1900/1, 14.1868 orchid walk

The 1885 Brisbane reference 1A.1885, lists Oncidium cucllatum, lanccanum, papilio, ornithorhynchum, pulvinatum and vericosum.

Oncidium “Shary Baby Sweet Fragrance. Hybrid orchid in Orchid walk

Oncidium varicosum var. ‘Dancing Lady’ Epiphytic orchid with beautiful sprays of yellow orchid flowers in spring. Oncidium pachyphyllum syn. Trichocentrum pachyphyllum requested for Camden park NSW from Loddiges’ Nursery in 1849 and obtained from them, brought out from England by Captain P. P. King in that year. www.qos.org.au 1A.1885. 13.1900/1,15.Camden Orchid walk

Ophiopogon japonicus (Mondo Grass). Well known in landscaping, low growing tuft forming evergreen plant. Known in China at least from the 18th Century as Yanjieedo (Bordering the steps grass). Shade and drought tolerant. 1A.1885, 13.1900/1 (O.jaburan), 16.China East Boder gardens, Blue trellis Garden

Pachyveria glauca hybrid     Mexico Front path garden

Pachyphytum oviferum        Mexico Front Path Garden

Paphiopedalum insigne (slipper orchid) www.qos.org.au 13.1900/1 Potted near back stairs

Pedilanthus tithymaloides syn. Euphorbia tithymaloides (zig zag plant) succulent plant with zig zag stems and terminal flowers with colourful bracts. Introduced to Britain in 1820. South America Orchid Walk

Peperomia obtusifolia is a species of epiphytic flowering plant native to Mexico to northern jungles of South America and the Caribbean West of Fenced Rose garden

Peperomia caperata ‘Variegata‘ (also known as Peperomia caperata ‘Tricolor’) has smaller leaves green, yellow and pink edge. It is an epiphytic in the jungles of South America which is their natural habitat. The flowers are not particularly colourful in their own way, but quite charming, reminding one of attenuated Anthuriums or Arum Lilies. West Of Fenced Rose garden

 Peperomia obtusifolia ‘Alba’ is a variegated form with pale lemon yellow new leaves, deepening in colour as they age. West Of Fenced Rose garden

Peperomia obtusifolia ‘Albo-marginata’ is a variegated form with silvery white borders on a grey-green leaf. west of Fenced Rose Garden

Peperomia obtusifolia ‘Variegata’ & Peperomia obtusifolia ‘Greengold’ are both variegated forms with patches of cream or yellow. West Of Fenced Rose garden

Phalaenopsis Blume, (moth orchid), is a genus of about seventy species of plants in the family Orchidaceae. A number have cme as potted gifts with their long lasting white flowers. Potted near back stairs, In Bollygum, Orchid walk

Philodendron spp  (Elephants ears) Large dramatic leaves, tolerates shade but requires some moisture. Philodendrons are known to have been collected from the wild as early as 1644 by Georg Marcgraf, but the first partly successful scientific attempt to collect and classify the genus was done by Charles Plumier. Plumier collected approximately six species from the islands of MartiniqueHispaniola, and St. Thomas. Since then, many exploration attempts have been made to collect new species by others. These include those by N.J. Jacquin who collected new species in the West IndiesColombia, and Venezuela. At this time in history, the names of the philodendrons they were discovering were being published with the genus name Arum, since most aroids were considered to belong to this same genus. The genus Philodendron had not yet been created. Throughout the late 17th, 18th century, and early 19th centuries, many plants were removed from the genus Arum and placed into newly created genera in an attempt to improve the classification. Heinrich Wilhelm Schott addressed the problem of providing improved taxonomy and created the genus Philodendron and described it in 1829. The genus was first spelled as ‘Philodendrum’, but in 1832, Schott published a system for classifying plants in the family Araceae titled Meletemata Botanica in which he provided a method of classifying philodendrons based on flowering characteristics. In 1856, Schott published a revision of his previous work titled Synopsis aroidearum, and then published his final work Prodromus Systematis Aroidearum in 1860, in which he provided even more details about the classification of Philodendron and described 135 species. Philodendron are usually extremely distinctive and not usually confused with other genera, although a few exceptions in the genera Anthurium and Homalomena resemble PhilodendronThe genus Philodendron is subdivided into 3 subgenera: MeconostigmaPteromischum, and Philodendron. In 2018, it was proposed that Philodendron subg. Meconostigma be recognized as a separate genus, Thaumatophyllum. Typically, the inflorescence is of great importance in determining the species of a given philodendron, since it tends to be less variable than the leaves. 1.1875 (P.tripartitum), 1A.1885 (P.carderi, crinipes, erubescens, imbe, melanochysum), 13.1900/1 Rain forest walk, West of Fenced Rose Garden, North Border.

Philodendron “Birkin” Ornamental plant with dark green heart shaped glossy leaves which start off green and gradually develop variegation as leaves grow. Brighter light may increase colour contrast also. Usually stays compact

Philodendron erubescens “Black Cardinal” A low growing clumping hybrid philodendron with dark green, almost black leaves. New emerging leaves are a beautiful glossy bronze colour.

Philodendron “Little Phil” compact and easy to grow philodendron that stays in low growing bushy ‘shrubs’. Will not climb like so many other Philodendrons

Philodendron “Moonlight’ A  bright, almost fluorescent green philodendron with a low clumping growth habit. A colour contrast plant for shady spots in the garden. Best in positions where there is no direct sun

Philodendron “Pink Princess” a rare variegated variety of philodendron that has a deep green to blackish and pink coloured leaf.

Plectranthus scutellarioides. Syn Solenostemon  syn. Coleus blumei syn. Coleus scutellarioides Short-lived perennial plant plant.The species is extremely variable in the colour and shape of the leaves. The leaves of the wild species may be somewhat variegated but this has been developed to an extreme degree in cultivated varieties, whose leaves may include one or more shades of green, white, cream, yellow, pink, red, maroon and dark purple. The species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1763, as Ocimum scutellarioides. The genus Ocimum is best known for Ocimum basilicum, sweet basil. The species was first introduced into Europe from Java in 1851 by a Dutch horticulturalist. At this time, there were few leaf colours and shapes. A wider variety was available by 1877, when the American William Bull offered seeds at 43 US cents each. However, by selecting for seed production, early flowering was inadvertently favoured, and leaf colour also declined in intensity. Coleus breeding revived in the early 1940s, and by the 1980s, the availability of an improved range of cultivars led to coleus becoming the tenth most important bedding crop in the US.  Plectranthus scutellarioides is native to India (including the Himalayas), Plants were obtained for Camden Park NSW from the Sydney Botanic Garden on 17th October 1853. For more see webmaster@coleussociety.org Tropics Africa-Indonesia 1A.1885 (18 garden varieties). 13.1900/1,15.CamdenSri Lanka, China, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and Australia. East Border, Fenced Rose garden, NW Rainforest Garden, North Lawn and Borders . Below North Verandah etc.

Pleomele reflexa ‘variegated’ Song of India   India , Blue trellis garden

Porphyrocoma lanceolata syn. Dianthera pohliana low growing plant, patterned vein on leaf, terminal spike burgundy/purple flower South America The name published by Hooker in 1845, in the collection at Camden Park NSW in 1857 13.1900/1 West garden/hydrangea walk, North east Corner

Portulacaria afra (Jade plant) Old fashioned succulent plant with lozenge shaped leaves. South Africa Front Embankment

Pseuderanthemum carruthersii var. atropurpureum ‘Variegated’ Variegated False Eranthemum  Polynesia Plough Inn

Rhoeo spathacia syn. Tradescantia spathacea  Brought from the countries bordering the Gulf of Mexico to Jamaica; whence it has been imported to England. Introduced to Britain in 1783. Hardy plant for understory planting and as edging plant due to colourful leaves.                          Central America 15.Camden Blue trellis garden

Rhipsalis cereuscula “Coral Cactus”  does well in container gardens and hanging baskets. It is native to Brazil, where it grows beneath large trees. It is used to receiving filtered light this way,   Rhipsalis is a genus of flowering plants in the cactus family, typically known as mistletoe cacti. They are found in parts of Central America, the Caribbean and northern regions of South America. Additionally they inhabit isolated locations in Africa and Asia, and are the only cactus group naturally occurring in the Old World. This is the largest and most widely distributed genus of epiphytic cacti. Hanging basket

Rhipsalis micrantha syn. Cactus micranthus, Rhipsalis tonduzii, Rhipsalis wercklei, Rhipsalis roseana, Rhipsalis rauhiorum, Rhipsalis kirbergii In nature they grow below the tree canopy so a spot with mottled light is ideal. Best grown in a hanging pot. Costa Rica : Ecuador : Peru : Venezuela (Central America, South America) Hanging Basket

Rhipsalis paradoxa is  identified by its 3 angle chain like growths. This plant can grown very long and hang far out of the pots. It is an epiphyte. The flowers are small and white, It is endemic to Brazil. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is threatened by habitat loss. Hanging Basket

Rhipsalis pilocarpa  (the hairy-fruited wickerware cactus) , is a species of flowering plant in the cactus family that is endemic to Brazil. Scarce in the wild. It grows in tropical rain forests on tree branches. Loss of habitat due to expanding agriculture and urbanization is a major threat. Dark green to purple, slender, cylindrical, at first erect, sometimes 40 cm long and unbranched, erect at first, in time the whole plant becoming pendent, terminated by 2 to 4 branches in a whorl, the ultimate branches 1 to 4 cm. long, 6 mm in diameter. Segments clustered, perfectly round in cross section, succulent,

Ruellia elegans  (Brazilian petunia)  This species has open-faced coral-red blossoms from late spring until autumn. a large natural range from Chile to Brazil. East Border Garden

Ruellia graecizans (red Christmas pride). Low growing shade tolerant subshrub with red bell like flowers in summer. Self seeds easily. South America Self seeded throughout the garden

Ruellia makoyana, the monkey plant or trailing velvet plant,. It is an evergreen perennial growing to 60 cm (24 in) tall by 45 cm (18 in) wide, with white-veined hairy leaves and trumpet-shaped pink flowers in summer. Ruellia makoyana was described and the name validly published by Jules Closon in 1895. Brazil  Blue Trellis garden

Ruellia macrantha .Tall upright shrub with large leaves and pink single bell shaped flowers Brazil 1.1875 (3 Ruellia species), 1A.1885 (formosa, herbstii), 9.1851 (R.formosa), 13.1900/1 (R.elegens, R.rosea) East Border Garden

Ruellia simplex, ( Mexican petunia, Mexican bluebell or Britton’s wild petunia),. It is a native of Mexico, the Caribbean, and South America. It was named and described by Carlos (Charles) Wright in ‘Flora Cubana’ in 1870. It has become a widespread invasive plant in Florida, where it was likely introduced as an ornamental before 1933. NW Corner garden, North Rose Garden

Ruellia squarrosa syn. Dipteracanthus squarrosus (Creeping Ruellia), Creeping groundcover with blue to violet single flowers. Ruellia squarrosa (Fenzl) Cufodontis ex E. Walker] represents a later synonym for Ruellia longepetiolata (Oerst.) Hemsl., which has priority published in 1855. Favours natural watercourses, forest edges and disturbed zones. It is a sprawling perennial herb with branches to 60cm. It has square stems which grow from underground rhizomes. Grows in sun or dry shade. Southern Mexico. East Border garden, Stone circle

Sanchezia speciosa.  Tall erect shrub with colourful leaves contrasting in mid rib and veins. Tolerates shade. Equador 1A.1885, 13.1900/1 Rain Forest Walk

Sansevieria spp (Mother in Law’s tongue).Tough spear shaped leaves on a very hardy plant with attractive variegated green leaf colour 1.1875, 1A.1885 (6 species S.capensis, cylindrica, fuscocinata. Guinaensis, javanica, zeylandica), 13.1900/1 Potted at this stage

Saintpaulia ionantha (African Violet) low growing clump forming plant with glaucous leaves and deep violet flower Africa 13.1900/1 Potted near back stairs

Schlefflera elegentissima syn. Plerandra elegantissima, syn. Dizygotheca elegantissima “False Aralia’ It is an evergreen shrub or tree. Its leaves are thin, coppery red to dark green with toothed edges. On adult plants the leaves are much broader. In autumn it bears clusters of pale green flowers followed by black fruit. John Gould Veitch collected Schlefflera syn Aralia elegantissima, which was first introduced to the world during the London ‘Great Spring Show’ of 1873. New Caledonia. NW Corner rainforest garden

Schlumbergera truncata (zygocactus) A reliable cascading low plant with brightly coloured flowers in pink or white colours. Often used as a potted plant or in hanging basket.South American jungles 1A.1885 Potted near back stairs

Selenicereus anthonyanus (also known by its obsolete name, Cryptocereus anthonyanus) is a cactus species native to southern Mexico. It is grown as an ornamental because of its nocturnal flowers and unusual, leaf-like stems. Common names include fishbone cactus, rick rack cactus, zig-zag cactus and St. Anthony’s rik-rak, and is sometimes referred to as an orchid cactus.

Setcreasia purpurea (purple Heart) colour in a low growing sprawling plant. Pink flowers. Mexico 13.1900/1 (Rhoeo spathacea) Orchid WalkSetcreasea purpurea. (Moses in the basket) Strong purple foliag

Spathiphyllum cochlearispathum (Peace Lily) native to southern Mexico and often cultivated. The species was originally described by Frederik Liebmann in a separate genus Hydnostachyon, which he described as having a concave (spoon-like) spathe Spatha foliacea persistens cochleariformis, from which he formed the species epithet cochlearispathum. The species was moved to the genus Spathiphyllum by Heinrich Gustav Adolf Engler  Spathiphyllum  Certain species of Spathiphyllum are commonly known as Spath or peace lilies. They are evergreen perennials with large leaves 12–65 cm long and 3–25 cm broad. The flowers are produced in a spadix, surrounded by a 10–30 cm long, white, yellowish, or greenish spathe. The plant does not need large amounts of light or water to survive. NW Rainforest area  Orchid walk, Potted near back stairs, Rain Forest walk

Strobilanthes cusia syn.S.flaccidifolius Tall lax plant, spring flowering with pendulous crimson bells. Needs moisture to establish. China.East Border gardens, Central Lawn and borders, Araucaria walk

Stromanthe sanguinea Clump forming plant with large dramatic ovate leaves of red, cream and green variegation. Shade tolerant. 1A.1885 Rain forest walk

Syngonium podophyllum Creeping plant with spear shaped pale green leaves. Clings to surfaces including trees. May form a ground covering mat. Central America 1A.1885 (s.auritum) West garden, Orchid walk

Syngonium podophyllum ‘Pink’ The arrowhead vine makes a pretty trailing or climbing vine .They have leaves that change shape according to the plant’s stage of growth, and adult leaf forms are often much more lobed than the juvenile forms. Mexico South America,  West of Fenced Rose garden, 

Thelychiton speciosus syn. Dendrobium speciosum syn. Callista speciosa A large epiphytic, petrophytic orchid with sprays of cream to yellow flowers in Spring. Introduced to Britain in 1824. It was grown at Camden Park NSW from 1850. It was one of the remnant plants at “The Shambles” when we arrived in 1992. 1.1875,1A.1885, 15.Camden  Epiphyte in macadamia tree near back stairs.

Tradescantia spathacea Rhoeo “Stripey Pink” Rhoeo forms rosettes of leaves being pink and white on the surface of the leaf and purple beneath. Southern Mexico Guatemala and Belize NE Corner, Plough Inn

Vanilla planifolia (Syn. V. fragrans) is an attractive sought vine with and highly clusters of golden flowers which produce pods. This climbing orchid vine is a member of the Family Orchidaceae and can reach up to 15m in the tropics. It is free growing in the sub tropical areas and must have very well drained conditions. West of Fenced Rose garden

Viola odorata (violet) Low growing creeping evergreen with perfumed flowers of purple, or white held on erect stems. 1.1875, 1A.1885, 7.1897 (violas ‘of sorts’) (White violet sourced from Talgai homestead) South Rose garden, East Border gardens, West garden, Fenced Rose garden

Zebrina pendula syn Tradescantia variegate  (wandering Jew). Longitudinal striped patterned leaf on soft stemmed creeping plant related to Tradescantia.1A.1885, 10.1855 Orchid walk, Blue trellis garden, Central Shrub garden

Zingiber spectabile is a species of true ginger, native to Maritime Southeast Asia. It is primarily grown in the West as an ornamental plant,Orchid Walk