Inventory of Shrubs at “The Shambles” (Grasses and Weeds)

The Shambles Garden Shrub Inventory  2017

A garden inventory becomes a vital part of maintaining a large garden and is very interesting when the garden contains a collection of ‘old fashioned’ plants of many varieties not commercially available. Making, maintaining and publishing an inventory of garden plants is a curatorial task. It greatly enhances communication and is a tool for research.

please Scroll down the following lists of plants,

List is alphabetical according to Latin Binomial. There are Annotated 19th century references in red/blue with the key below. The grouping of plants is purely arbitary and a personal choice.

Shrubs

Grasses and Weeds at the very end

A foreword to our Inventory.

The inspiration for making garden inventories is unlike that for football card collecting or train spotting although it may require similar concentration and dedication. The variety and complexity of species in a domestic garden, or a public collection can increase over time and the gardener who wants to stay on top of this will acquire lots of gardening reference books and start to identify, catalogue and map plants and plant groups. Making and organizing one’s own catalogue increases the efficiency of garden care by identifying various plant groups horticultural needs, identifying successful varieties for further collection and helps with the sharing of ideas and enjoyment with others. Any plant inventory made today may become the scientific, historical and social research material of the future if steps are taken to disseminate the information and to preserve these lists.

As members of the Australian Garden History Society (Queensland) we have an interest in identifying not just important sites but also the great variety of plants relevant to the study of garden history. To that end we have trialed different versions of catalogues of our own garden plants in our first two books, “Over the Fence and Overlooked, Traditional Plants in Queensland’s Gardening Heritage”,2009. ISBN 978-1876344665 and “The Shambles, The Story of a Montville Garden”, 2007, ISBN 978-0980430400 and on our Website:  www.montvillegarden.com.

We were very fortunate to be able to study the plant ledgers compiled for the large ornamental and productive gardens and orchards of Talgai Homestead, from 1868 with notes up until the 1940s. The carefully numbered, dated and notated entries for each plant form an invaluable record of this historic garden thanks to the inventory created by Ellen and George Clark over 140 years ago.

In referring yet again to our modern living inventory as a basis for investigation of the heritage credentials of our common traditional garden plants, we recognize some advantages and obvious flaws in this type of descriptive and comparitive study. An advantage is that we have a broad collection of common warm climate and temperate plants, certainly enough to start this sort of enquiry. Also we are fortunate that some very thorough plant inventories were prepared in the nineteenth century and that these are available for study. Much material can be found through National Library linkage to other libraries particularly the State Library of Victoria through  www.trove.nla.gov.au

We note some obvious limitations in generalization from our comparison of old and new plant inventories. Our plant collection contains no water plants such as water lilies or lotus, has comparatively few succulents & cacti and these were popular with gardeners in the past. Our plant collection is ornamental rather than productive and therefore the enormous range of productive trees, vines, fruit, vegetables and herbs known by former generations of gardeners is limited in our inventory.

Our stimulus to undertake this study was not being able to find a readable inventory which clearly and immediately offers the evidence of the bona fides of a plant which carry the “heritage” label in books and journals. The Historic houses trust NSW does publish the Colonial Plants Data base at  http://www.hht.net.au/research/colonial_plants which is an excellent resource but didn’t fulfill our requirement for comparison to Queensland resources. Our method of inventory cross referencing will no doubt be incomplete.  It is difficult to be confident about of the identity of some plants because of uncertainty with synonyms, idiosyncratic spelling, changed scientific and common names over time, the free use of ‘common names’ and the vast variety within some plant groups. The gardens of our forebears were not sepia tinted, transient or dull places. Notation in our modern Inventory will show evidence that 19th and early 20th century domestic gardens were filled with vibrant colour, perfume and enormous variety of hardy reliable plants.

Key for Notations: The Annotated References from Historical Sources.

“Catalogue of the Plants in the Queensland Botanic Gardens”,Walter Hill, Government Printer, Brisbane 1875.                            1. 1875

“Catalogue of Plants in the two Metropolitan Gardens, The Brisbane Botanic Garden and Bowen Park (The Garden of the Queensland Acclimatization Society)”,   Frederick Manson Bailey, Colonial Botanist, Government Printer, Brisbane 1885                                       1A. 1885

Designed Landscapes in Queensland, 1859-1939”,  Jean Sim, QUT, 1999, APPENDIX G, referred to the following plant lists:

“The Flower garden in Queensland, containing concise and practical instructions for the Cultivation of the flower garden. And the management of Pot Plants in Australia”, Albert Hockings, Slater & Co, Brisbane, 1875                                                                     2. 1875

“Cultural Industries in Queensland: Papers on the Cultivation of Useful Plants suited to the climate of Queensland:their value as food, in the arts, and in medicine; and methods of Obtaining their products”   Lewis Bernays, Government printer, Brisbane , 1883, (pp 201-207, The Shade of trees)                                                                     3. 1883

“Tree Planting for Shade and Ornament: Suggestions for teachers and others interested in the Planting of Trees”  Edward Shelton, Dept of Agriculture, Government Printer, Brisbane, Bulletin 17, 1892

List: Philip McMahon, Brisbane Botanic gardens Curator      4a  1892

Ebenezer Cowley, Overseer, State Nursery, Kamerunga 4b  1892

J S Edgar , Botanic gardens , Rockhampton                  4c   1892

William Soutter, Manager , Acclimatization society        4d   1892

“General Catalogue of Seeds, Plants, bulbs, Tubers, trees, Climbers, etc.”  Samuel Eaves, Howard, printer, Brisbane, 1897             5    1897

“Queenslander”  under ‘Horticulture’ section ‘Shrubs’, William Soutter, 18/12/1897 pp 1181                                                             6    1897

“General descriptive Catalogue for 1874, of Fruit trees, Shrubs, Ornamental and forest trees, Etc. etc”  Charles Wyatt, Frogmore Nursery, Geelong 1874                                                           7    1874

“1896 Catalogue of Flower roots”.  Law, Somner & Co., Melbourne, 1896                                                                                      8   1896

“Catalogue of Plants for Sale by Michael Guilfoyle”   Exotic Nursery, Double bay, Sydney 1851                                                       9   1851

Catalogue of Plants for Sale at the Victoria Nursery, Richmond”  George Brunning, Melbourne, 1855                                                  10  1855

“Report on the Progress and Condition of the Botanic Garden and Government Plantations, 1873”, R.Schomburgk, W.C.Cox: Government Printer, Adelaide, 1874                                                          11  1874

“Botanic Gardens, Brisbane, Catalogue of Plants 1962”, Brisbane city Council, Brisbane, 1962                                                        12  1962

“Federation Gardens: Plant lists, Compiled from Searl & Sons General Catalogue 1901, Seeds, Plants & Bulbs for Sydney; Pearce Bros.Descriptive Catalogue and Guide 1900; Robert Little & Co’s Catalogue of Flower seeds Sydney 1900: Rumsey’s 1882 Catalogue (Roses) Sydney 1882   www.heritage.nsw.gov.au                    13 1900/1

“Talgai Homestead, Plant Ledger, commenced 1868-1907 Ellen and George Clark. Additions after 1907-1942 George Carr Clark, 1945-1965 Bardwell” 14 1868- 1940S  to 1965 Bardwell”                                                                                                                                                             14. 1868                                              

www.hortuscamden.com ,Hortus camdenensis: an illustrated catalogue of plants collected by Sir William Macarthur at Camden Park, NSW, Australia between about c.1820 & 1861 / by Colin Mills     15. Camden

“The Garden Plants of China” Peter Valder, Florilegium, Sydney 1999      16. China

A COMMENT ON THE VERY EARLY INTRODUCTION OF MANY PLANTS IN AUSTRALIAN GARDENING HISTORY

In the 19th Century Botanic Gardens supplied Government agencies and others with plant material and Schomburgk in Adelaide reports his dispersement of 10,380 trees and shrubs in 1873-4 11.1874. Regarding the exchange of plant material with Australia’s new colonies Schomburgk in Adelaide describes the sources of his “Valuable gifts” as Dr Hooker, Kew, in London; Dr Scheffer, Buitenzorg, Java; Dr Regel, Imperial Botanic Garden, St.Petersburg; Dr Moore, Dublin; Dr Pasquale, Naples; and the Garden Directors at Capetown and Auckland. He also listed the Consul-General Alexandria in Egypt; Department of Agriculture, United States of America and the Directors of the Botanic Gardens in Sydney, Brisbane and Melbourne, then a list of Nurseries in Britain, France and Australia (including Queensland)  11.1874.

Walter Hills extensive and detailed Catalogue of the Queensland Botanic Garden of 1875 demonstrates the abundance drawn together by early garden directors and domestic gardeners in the first century of European settlement in Australia. 1.1875 An excellent illustration of this can be found in one of our favourite books, “Grandfather grew Mangel-Wurzels” by Janet Hauser which has a plant association of each of many localities in the Beaudesert area of South East Qld

Shrubs “The Shambles”   2015

Ornamental garden shrubs have presumed to be the chief topic of conversation, the focus of design and the plants which create the gardeners ‘piece de resistance’ in many cases. For collectors some types of shrub have created fascination and even obsession. ‘Old Fashioned’ or traditional may be accurate labels for many of the plants from our collection and long lived garden survivor shrubs were the inspiration for our own garden development. These plants are often hybridized and eponymously named and therefore benefit from being identified and records maintained by the gardener over time.

Abelia grandifolia, A.grandiflora Var. ‘Francis Mason’. A beautiful and tough lax shrub, Easy to strike from cutting. Small white pendulous flowers in summer China.  1.1875 (3 species), 1A.1885 (A.rupestrus, A.uniflora), 7.1897 (A.uniflora) Central Shrub garden

Abelia grandiflora variegata   “Variegated Abelia”. It has a natural rounded habit and produces masses of small white flowers in Spring, Summer and Autumn. The leaves are green and broadly edged with white with new pink growth.  Stone Circle Garden, central shrub garden

Abelia grandiflora “Kaleidoscope”                      central shrub garden

Abelia floribunda,   lax arching shrub with clusters of pendulous pink flowers in spring-summer. Mexico 1.1875, 9.1851. Replaced with 2 specimens from ‘White House Nursery’ 2016.  Mexico central Shrub garden

Abelia schumannii syn.Abelia longituba syn. A. parvifolia. Arching evergreen shrub. Pink flowering in summer . Named after British consul general in China 1817 – Dr Clarke Abel.

Abutilon (17species) described in Brisbane Botanic Gardens 1875 incl A.striatum,A.bedfordianum, A.venosum, A.vtaefolium.1.1875,Abutilons also in ref  6.1897,  7.1897, 9.1851( A.venosum,A.richardii, A.devonianum, A.striatum, A.nitidifolium, A.bedfordianum)

Abutilon x hybridum  (bell flower) var. ‘Orange Cascade’,“Golden Fleece’, ‘Nabob’ (red), ‘Canary bird’ and ‘Cerise Queen’ with orange, yellow, red, yellow, pink and also white flowers in our garden. These are evergreen, summer flowering and very tolerant of dry shade and require pruning to shape. Other hybrids including ‘Bella select’ suntense, pictum types are collected. Breeding perhaps as follows.

Abutilon. X hybridum  A group of hybrids between A. darwinii and  A. striatum. All have softly hairy, lobed leaves and bell-shaped flowers with incurving petals.

  1. megapotamicum Native to southern Brazil and Uruguay, where it grows to 8’. Flowers are small, yellow, and pendant, with a large red calyx. X milleri long, narrow leaves and pale orange flowers with red calyces.
  2. pictum. Native to Brazil. Leaves toothed and 3, 5, or 7 lobed. Similar to a Japanese maple. Flowers have protruding stamens, with orange-yellow petals that are veined with dark crimson.
  3. x suntense – A cross between to native Chilean species, A. vitifolium and A. ochsenii. It is a medium shrub with mauve or white flowers.
  4. venosum – Native to Brazil, with 5-7 lobed leaves like a Japanese maple. Flowers are orange-yellow and veined with brown.

Abutilon x hybridum   (double pink bell flower). Double pink, almost peonie form flower on standard Abutilon shrub. Garden hybrid  1A.1885 (Abutilon ‘Chinese Lantern’ (20 different species and varieties)

Abutilon x hybridum variegatum  ‘Souvenir de Bonn’ (variegated leaf bell blower). Pretty variegated foliage, an unspectacular dull orange/pink flower.Garden hybrid

Abutilon megapotamicum variegatum.    Small pendulous yelloy/red flowers with black stamens, on low growing untidy shrub with variegated leaves. Very reliable in dry shade. Garden hybrid

Abutilon magapotamicam   var ‘Red Goblin’ and standard orange varieties. Fairly tall, lax shrub, evergreen, flowers continually in dry shade. Sun tolerant garden hybrid.

Acalypha wilkesiana var.“firestorm” Always reliable in subtropical conditions as a colourful variegated foliage plant for hedging and background. Fiji, Pacific Islands 1.1875 (3 spp), 1A.1885 (copper leaf), 6.1897,  13.1900/1

Alternanthera dentata, Alternanthera   var “Island Sunset”. Tough low growing shrub with striking dark burgundy/red foliage, self seeds, responds to pruning. Will grow in sun or shade. Central and South America 1.1875, 1A.1885 (5 spp), 5.1897

Anisodontea capensis syn.Sphaeralcea capensis (Marsh Mallow or Hairy Mallow) Fine stemmed evergreen shrub. Pink to apricot flowers in summer South Africa

Azalea  (Rhododendron indica, R.kurume). Once established these traditional slow growing shrubs will survive for decades rewarding with a display of spring flowers which cover each bush. Foliage is prone to mite damage. In our own garden many plants were lost in their early stage if the roots dried out in drought. Also the identification of some of our own hybrids is lost. 1.1875 (11 varieties incl. exquista, splendens, 4 other species), 1A.1885 (19 varieties incl. exquisite), 9.1851 (exquisite, purpurea), 10.1855, 13.1900/1 (73 var.) Most are in beds South and East of the House, together with Vireyas and Pieris

Our named ‘sun hardy’ Azaleas include

‘Alphonse Anderson’

“Alba Magnifica”  SE corner House

“Magnifica” (mauve) 2.1875  Facing south Rose garden, East Border                                                                   Garden, Driveway

“Exquisite” (pink) Facing South Rose garden

“Kirin” (pink)  East Border garden

“Coral wings” (pink) Facing South Rose garden

“Dr Arnold” (Pink) Facing South Rose garden

“Red wing” (crimson/red) East Border garden

“Fielders White” (white) East Border garden,

“Firelight” (crimson red) Facing South Rose garden

“Reinhold Ambrosius”

“Rosa Belton”  (white/pink)

“Anna Kehr” (white/pink)

“Mrs Kint”

Azalea, Rhododendron rutherfordiana indica “Firelight”

Azaleas from temperate Asia, garden hybrids “Southern indica” refers to sun tolerant Azaleas as will grow in southern USA. Rhododendron species introduced to Europe during late 18th century to mid 19th century period, and in Australia from that time.

Barleria cristata.Barleria   var. “jet streak”, var. “purple dazzler” (Phillipine violet). Tough attractive shrub, Mauve flowers, ‘jet streak’ flowers streaked mauve and white. Strikes easily from cutting, tolerates sun and dry shade. Southern Asia  1.1875 (4 spp incl. B.cristata), 1A.1885, 7.1897. Driveway, Stone Circle, NE Corner gardens

Barleria repens   var. ‘orange bugle’ (coral creeper) trailing plant or ground cover with orange flowers. May climb through other shrubs to spread over some distance. South Africa East Border Garden

Bauhinia corymbosa  Phanera corymbosa  Evergreen semi-climber. Small green bilobed leaves on reddish hairy stems. Loose clusters of pink orchid-like flowers in spring and autumn. Useful for a trellis where its fine texture can be admired. Prefers a sunny protected position and well drained soil. Frost and drought sensitive. ” Bauhinia ” was a name given this genus by Linnaeus to honor the twin brothers Johann and Gaspard Bauhin, who were 16th century Swiss scientists – Johann was a botanist and Gaspard a botanist and physician.  Can be spectacular cover over a fence or embankment. South East Asia ?1.1875 (9 species Bauhinea), 1A.1885 (Bauhinia corymbosa). North Pool fence ,embankment

Bauhinia tomentosa Medium to large shrub to a small tree, up to 4m in height. Leaves are divided into two lobes, light green in colour, with a leathery texture, carried on branches that are often drooping. It produces large bell-shaped, bright yellow flowers with a black to deep maroon coloured centre from December to March. The fruit are pea like, slender and velvety. They are light green, turning a pale brown with age and are produced from January to June or even later. Bark is grey or brown. Yellow Bauhinia is native to tropical Africa and can be found as far as India and Sri Lanka. South Rose Garden, NW Corner garden

Bouvardia longiflora , Royal Daphne Supreme White, Royal Daphne Fresco (pink), Royal Daphne Daphne (pink), Amall shrub, with cented flowers. It is a native of Mexico. The genus is named in honor of Charles Bouvard (1572–1658), physician to Louis XIII, and superintendent of the “Jardin du Roi” in Paris  Under back verandah

Brugmansia Linnaeus first classified these plants as part of Datura with his 1753 description of Datura arborea. Then in 1805, C. H. Persoon transferred them into a separate genus, Brugmansia, named for Dutch naturalist Sebald Justinus Brugmans. For another 168 years, various authors placed them back and forth between the genera of Brugmansia and Datura, until in 1973, with his detailed comparison of morphological differences, T.E. Lockwood settled them as separate genera, where they have stayed unchallenged since. Brugmansia found in the following Australian references:   1.1875 (4 species), 1A.1885 (B.suaveolens, knightii,sanguinea),   6.1897,7.1897 (B.arborea), 9.1851 (B.arborea white, B.bicolor, B.knightii double white), 10.1855 (B.arborea)

Brugmansia x candida  aurea (yellow angels trumpet). Tall growing, brittle stemmed untidy shrub with large spectacular yellow trumpet shaped flowers. All parts of the plant are poisonous, grows easily from cutting. South America

Brugmansia candida (aurea x versicolor) rosea.   Tall brittle shrub or small tree (pink angels trumpet). All Brugmansias are poisonous containing alkaloids hyoscyamine, scopolamine and atropine like activity.  South America

Brugmansia versicolor is a shrub or small tree reaching 3.0–4.9 m (10–16 ft) in height. It has an alternate insertion of elliptic/oblong leaves that are entire with smooth edges. One of the most prominent characteristics of B. versicolor is the presence of giant drooping flowers which hang upside down, which is where it gets its common name of Angel’s Trumpet. The flowers are the largest of all Brugmansia at 300–510 mm (12–20 in) in length. They open first white, but then may age to turn peach, pink, apricot or remain white., Brugmansia versicolor is exceptionally poisonous if ingested in large quantities. It contains various alkaloids that have toxic properties which affect the mind and body. Some of these alkaloids include atropinescopolamine, and hyoscyamine. No matter if swallowed or inhaled, the flowers, leaves, and seeds of Brugmansia will most likely cause symptoms of hallucinations, dry mouth, muscle weakness, increased blood pressure, increased pulse, fever, dilated pupils, and paralysis.  South America. South Rose Garden

Brugmansia aurea culebra   (Handkerchief Brugmansia), long thin leaves with pendulous white flowers on a rare variety of Angels Trumpet. South America

Brunfelsia americana. Yellow/white tubular Flowers forming medium sized shrub. Flowers change from one colour to the other and carry both at the same time. Central and South America 1.1875, 1A.1885

Brunfelsia latifolia syn Francisia latifolia. (‘yesterday, today and tomorrow’) Spectacular as mauve tubular flowers change to white, with both carried at the same time in spring , spot flowering at other times. Perfumed, forms a large shrub, may be used for hedging. Central and South America) 1.1875 (Francisia latifolia), 1A.1885, 6.1897, 9.1851

Brunfelsia latifolia variegata . Variegated form with the same tubular flowers changing from mauve to white. Fenced Rose garden

Brunfelsia pauciflora syn. Brunfelsia eximia. Brunfelsia pauciflora is a species of flowering plant in the family Solanaceae, the nightshades. It is endemic to Brazil, and it is grown in cultivation. Its common names include yesterday-today-and-tomorrow, morning-noon-and-night, Kiss Me Quick, and Brazil raintree. Larger tubular flowers in mauve, then white and larger leaves than B.latifolia,  without perfume. Brazil  1.1875 (Francisia excimia), 1A.1885

Brunfelsia lactea.  Lady of the night. Shrub with vanilla coloured blooms that are very fragrant at night. Flowers tend to be larger and more prolific than Brunfelsia nitida. Blooms in light shade like most Brunfelsias. Fruit has a round capsule containing many seeds. . All parts of a plant are toxic, especially roots and fruits, to a lesser degree leaves. White tubular flowers, not yellow as the name suggests with striking almost black new foliage. Puerto Rico  1.1875 (Francisia uniflora), 1A.1885 (B.uniflora), 10.1855 (F.uniflora)

Buddleja found in the following references:1.1875 (6 species), 1A.1885 (lindleyana, madagascariensis, saligna), 9.1851 (B heterophylla, B.hybrida 2 types, B.paniculata)

Buddleia colvilei  A large evergreen shrub or small tree. Beautiful large flowers from Summer through to Autumn.   Full sun to part shade.  Frost tolerant and drought hardy. Height 4m. Width 3m.   The flowers are huge and will weigh down the branches, and an attractive feature is the combination of single as well as double flowers on the same panicle. Some years it can be one or the other, but mostly is a combination of both.   Buddleja colvilei is endemic to the eastern Himalaya; discovered by Hooker in 1849, he declared it ‘the handsomest of all Himalayan shrubs’ South Rose garden

Buddleia colvilei pendula This is a lovely, evergreen shrub.  Beautiful dark pink tubular flowers from Summer to Autumn.  Full sun to part shade. Height 2m. Width 1m. Frost tolerant. South Rose garden

Buddleja davidii (spelling variant Buddleia davidii), also called summer lilac, butterfly-bush, or orange eye, is a species of flowering plant in the family Scrophulariaceaenative to Sichuan and Hubei provinces in central China, and also Japan. It is widely used as an ornamental plant, and many named varieties are in cultivation. B. davidii is named for the Basque missionary and explorer in China, Father Armand David, who was the first European to report the shrub. It was found near Ichang by Dr Augustine Henry about 1887 and sent to St Petersburg. Another botanist-missionary in China, Jean-André Soulié, sent seed to the French nursery Vilmorin, and B. davidii entered commerce in the 1890s. White, traditional mauve, purple hybrids are available.  Beautiful terminal clusters of tiny tubular flowers which have a heavy perfume. The shrubs can become tall lax and untidy. Easily struck from cutting. China. Throughout the garden.

Buddleja davidii ‘Black Knight’ has been one of the most successful davidii cultivars ever released. A selection made by Ruys at the Moerheim Nursery, Dedemsvaart, Netherlands, circa 1959, it was accorded the RHS Award of Garden Merit in 1993. Central Lawn and Border Garden

Buddleja globosa, also known as the orange-ball-tree or orange ball buddleja, is a species of flowering plant endemic to Chile and Argentina, where it grows in dry and moist forest, from sea level to 2,000 m. The species was first described and named by Hope in 1782B. globosa is a large shrub to 5 m (16 ft) tall, with grey fissured bark. deep-yellow to orange leafy-bracted inflorescences comprise  globose heads, 1.2–2.8 cm in diameter, each with 30–50 flowers, heavily honey-scented. South America. South Rose Garden

Buddleja lindleyana   a deciduous shrub native to the provinces of Anhwei, Hunan, Hupeh,Kiangsu, Shanghai, Sichuan, and Yunnan in China, where it grows in rocky scrub alongside streams and tracks at elevations of 200 – 2700 m. The shrub has also naturalized on   Okinawa-jima, Japan, and in the south-eastern states of the USA.   B. lindleyana was collected and introduced to western cultivation in 1843 by Robert Fortune, who named it for the botanist John Lindley   Criss Cross Garden

Buddleja ‘Wattlebird’ is a hybrid cultivar of Buddleja madagascariensis × Buddleja asiatica raised by R J Cherry in Australia in 1993. Buddleja ‘Wattlebird’ is a lax, spreading shrub growing to a height and spread of 3.6 m × 2.7 m.[2] The inflorescences comprise long, slender panicles of very fragrant creamy white to orange yellow flowers which persist from midsummer to mid-autumn. The leaves are mid-green above, and grey tomentose below. A tall grey Buddleja with long racemes of yellow flowers. Garden hybrid. East Border Garden.

Buddleja salviifolia, common names Sage Bush and Sagewood, is endemic to much of southern and eastern Africa, from Kenya and Angola south, where it grows on rocky hillsides, along forest margins and watercourses. The species was described and named by Lamarck in 1792 Buddleja salviifolia is a large, semi-evergreen shrub, multi-stemmed, with untidy, drooping branches, typically reaching a height of 4 – 8  m. Lovely large shrub or brittle small tree. Strongly perfumed grey/blue flower spikes in spring. This is an outstanding old fashioned Buddleja. 1.1875, 7.1897 (B.salicifolia), 9.1851, 14.1868. North Lawn

Buddleja var. ‘Spring Promise’ It has masses of long slender stems of white delicately scented flowers from the middle of winter through to spring. This species can be grown in full-sun or part-shade. It grows quickly and will tolerate relatively dry conditions when

Camellia sasanqua.   A list of named varieties at “the Shambles’ is as follows. Most are modern hybrids. Autumn winter flowering,  Japan-garden hybrids. See Queensland Camellia Society  www.camellia.org.au The study of European and therefore Australian garden fashion in Camellias is one of ebb and flow. Camellias were made popular again by the work of Professor Waterhouse at ‘Erydene’ in Sydney from the 1930s. 1.1875 (1 sasanqua, 1 reticulata), 9.1851

The Shambles list of Sasanqua hybrids:

“Beatrice Emily” (pale pink)

“Donna Herziliade Freitas Magalhaes” (Mauve double)

“Hiryu” (bright pink)

“Scentsation” (demi-tasse, hybrid white/pink with faint perfume)

“Plantation pink” (pale pink)

“Showa-no sakae” (double white, mauve border)

“Yuletide” (single red)

“Sayonara” (double pink)

“Edna Butler” (single pale pink)

“Dazzler” (crimson pink)

“Red Willow” (single crimson/pink)

“Setsugekka” (white semidouble)

“Vanity Fair” (crimson pink).

“Cherilyn” (crimson pink)

“Mignonne” (small rosiform pink flowers)

Camellia x  vernalis   (white/pink flowers)

“Star above Star” (white/pink)

Camellia japonica  Winter flowering. China, Korea, Japan.  1.1875 (26 varieties incl ‘Aspasia’), 2.1875 1A.1885 (27 varieties), 7.1897 (45 varieties incl.’Aspasia’), 9.1851 (37 varieties), 10.1855 (35 varieties)

The very old camellias in the Government House grounds in Sydney are believed to be early stock brought from Camden Park. These early Macarthur varieties include Camellia japonica, Cleopatra 1849, Helenor 1848, Tabbs 1866, Great Eastern 1872 and Prince Frederick William 1872. There are also two early Camellia sasanqua varieties Mine No Yuki and Setsugekka 1898 Japan. At Government House there are also pre-1900 imported varieties, including Coccinea (1819), Paolina Maggi (1855 Italy), Prince Eugene Napoleon (1859 Belgium), Shiragiku (1861 Japan), Speciosissima (1861 England), Roma Risorta (1866 Italy), Rubescens Major (1886 France), and La Pace Rubra (1892). Also,a long list of C.japonica hybrids at Talgai (Qld) in 1868.

A list of Japonicas at ‘The Shambles’ appears to have one old MacArthur Aspasia type and ‘setsugekka’

“Blood of China” (Crimson red double)

“Commander Mullroy” (formal double white)

“Brushfield Yellow” (double cream to yellow)

“Takanini” (double red)

“Kamo-Hon Ami” (single white)

“Tama-no-yura” (red with white border)

“Emperor of Russia” variegated (red/white)

“William Bull” variegated (pink/white)

“R L Wheeler” variegated (red/white double)

“Aspasia MacArthur” small tree with streaked pink/white double

Flower

“Helenor”

“Great Eastern”

Species Camellias.

Camellia chinensis.  A robust shrub ,single white flowers, the Tea plant of china, known to Europeans since the 18th Century. Once no longer under Chinese control colonial powers introduced C.chinensis in India, Ceylon and southern Asia to establish tea plantations. China  1.1875 (Thea bohea 3 varieties), 1A.1885 (Thea, Thea assamica), 7.1897 (T.bohea), 9.1851 (T.viridis), 13.1900/1

Camellia chinensis rosea.   Pink flowering tea plant with darker new foliage. China, hybrid

Camellia crapnelliana, Vigorous tall growing shrub, slow to produce but has flowered in our climate. Discovered in the 1950s Hong Kong

Camellia grijsii .Vigourous shrub with attractive glossy foliage, generous small, single, white flowers China

Camellia lutchuensis.   Vigorous tall, arching shrub with tiny white perfumed flowers tinged with pink South East China

Camellia rosiflora small pink rose like flowers, compact shrub Southern Asia.

Camellia nitidissima chrysora.   Vigorous shrub with yellow flowers in autumn. Of interest as Camellias in general only produce flowers in the white through to red range. Southern China, North Vietnam

Calliandra haematocephela (pink) Tough self seeding shrub producing pink powderfuff like flowers in summer. Caribbean, South America 1A.1885

Calliandra portoricencis (white) Tall growing Calliandra with white powderfuff like flowers at the end of the day in summer. Caribbean, South America

Callicarpa bodinieri var. giraldii Callicarpa bodinieri (Bodinier’s beautyberry) is a species of flowering plant in the genus Callicarpa of the family Lamiaceaenative to West and Central China. Growing to 3 m (10 ft) tall by 2.5 m (8 ft) wide, it is an upright deciduous shrub with dark green leaves turning red in autumn (fall). In midsummer, small lilac flowers are produced in the leaf axils. But it is grown in gardens primarily for its small, decorative purple berries in tight clusters in autumn The Latin specific epithet bodinieri refers to Émile-Marie Bodinier, a French missionary and botanist of the 19th century, who collected plants in China. Sprawling lax shrub which produces tiny pink flowers in summer, then most notably shiny purple berry clusters. China  1.1875 (C.purpurea and 4 other spp), 1A.1885 (pedunculata, cana ), 9.1851 (C.cana-dentata)

Callicarpa dichotoma  ?  Callicarpa cana (White Beauty Berry) China

Centradenia grandiflora fantastic cover for embankments. Crimson/purple flowers, can be vulnerable to dry but reliable once established.Mexico

Cestrum newellii red cestrum

Cestrum purpurea syn.  C elegans, C panniculatum. Introduced to UK in 1840 and I Curtis illustrated magazine 1867, tough, tall dense clump forming shrub which produces tubular purple flowers at the end of stems n summer and autumn. Crushed foliage has odour. There are a number of Cestrum species available as garden specimens Mexico  1,1875 (6 species), 1A.1885 (5 species), 7.1897 (3 species)

Chaenomeles speciosa   japonica C. speciosa (Chinese Flowering Quince; syn.: Chaenomeles laganaria, Cydonia lagenaria, Cydonia speciosa, Pyrus japonica) is native to China and Korea, and has hard green apple-shaped fruit 5–6 cm diameter. The flowers are shades of red, white, or flecked with red and white. The leaves are 4–7 cm long.  Genus name comes from the Greek words chaino meaning to gape and melon meaning an apple in the incorrect belief that the fruits split open. We have var. ‘Apple Blossom’,var. ‘simmonii’ (deep red). Deciduous, thorny ornamental quince shrub, spring flowering. China

Clerodendrum (Clerodendron):   1.1875 (5 species), 1A.1885 (10spp cunninghamii, fallax, floribunda, fragrans, inerme, nutans, rumphiana, splendens, thompsonae, tomentosa),   5.1897 (Bushy Clerodendron), 6.1897,   9.1851 (8 species)   13.1900/1

Clerodendrum chinense is an erect, evergreen shrub with stout branches, it grows up to 2 metres tall. The plant spreads freely by means of suckers southern China, Nepal, northeast India, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines In Hawaii, C. chinense was first collected in 1864-1865. China. NE of verandah

Clerodendrum bungei .Beautiful pink hydrangea like flower heads, summer and autumn on an invasive spreading shrub. Crushed foliage smells like burnt oil. Does not tolerate drying out. Dormant in winter or in dry weather China

Clerodendrum nutans syn c.wallichii Clerodendron nutans is a very attractive small shrub growing to about 1 – 2 metres in height.
This tropical plant coms from NE India and has shiny dark green quilted lanceolate leaves and showy clusters of pendulous creamy white flowers with long stamens Clerodendrum wallichii was described by Elmer Drew Merrill. Pendulous white flowers on a sparse upright arching shrub. The flowers while small are quite beautiful in complexity. Dormant in winter or in dry weather. India, SE Asia. 1.1875, 1A.1885,  6.1897, 9.1851. Stone circle garden

Clerodendrum ugandense   syn. C.myricoides (blue butterfly bush) beautiful pale blue butterfly shaped flowers on a tall lax shrub.  Kenya, Uganda

Clerodendrum speciocissimum.  (pink/mauve bleeding heart) Twining shrub, climber with pink/mauve flowers/bracts.Tropical Africa, Java  1A.1885 (Clerodendron fallax).

Coffee arabica is originally from Yemen on the Arabian peninsula, Arabica is thought to be the first species of coffee to be cultivated and many consider it to be a superior coffee type.The earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking appears in the middle of the 15th century in the Sufi shrines of Yemen. It was here in Arabia that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in a similar way to how it is now prepared. Coffee seeds were first exported from East Africa to Yemen, as the coffea arabica plant is thought to have been indigenous to the former. Yemeni traders took coffee back to their homeland and began to cultivate the seed. By the 16th century, it had reached Persia, Turkey, and North Africa. From there, it spread to Europe and the rest of the world.The word “coffee” entered the English language in 1582 via the Dutch koffie, borrowed from the Ottoman Turkish kahve, in turn borrowed from the ArabicGah-wah . The Dutch East India Company (VOR) was the first to import coffee on a large scale. The Dutch later grew the crop in Jva and Ceylon The first exports of coffee from Java to the Netherlands occurred in 1711. Through the efforts of the British east India Company, coffee became popular in England as well. Oxford’s Queen’s Lane Coffee House, established in 1654, is still in existence today. Coffee was introduced in France in 1657, and in Austria and Poland after the 1683 Battle of Vienna when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks.  Coffee Trees are attractive with dark glossy leaves and striking red berries.  They take around seven years to mature and grow to about 5 metres but can be trimmed to two metres for easier harvest.  Coffee is relatively pest free and will grow well in rich or improved soils. Small white flowers appear two to four years after planting and produce a Jasmine-like fragrance. The flowers only last a few days then the green berries begin to appear, ripening and deepening to a bright red. Coffee grows best in semi-shade between around 15-25C. Western hedge, NW corner

Cotoneaster serotinus, syn C glaucophyllus  var serotinus George Forrest (1873-1932) first collected in the Yunnan province the worthwhile evergreen variety, C. serotinus, in 1907. A stiff branched evergreen shrub or small tree with an open habit and arching branches. It has rich dark green, round-tipped leaves with prominent veins and white star shaped flowers appear throughout the plant in spring. The flowers are followed by solitary red-orange berries that grow profusely along the branches in summer, lasting into winter. It is a very tough plant  North East Border Garden  Southern China and Vietnam   Hortus Camdenensis

Cytisus racemosa “dwarf yellow broom” low growing shrub with yellow/green flowers. Resents our wet weather. Canary islands  1.1875, 7.1897 (C.laburnum? and 4 spp), 10.1855

Cuphea compacta   established as an edging plant throughout the garden. Low growing, mauve flowers, self seeds. Mexico  1A.1885 (C.jorullensis?), 9.1851, 10. 1855 (4 species Cuphea)

Cuphea ignea (cigarette bush) Tough low shrub with crimson/red tubular flowers Mexico 1A.1885, 9.1851 (C.platycentra),10.1855 (C.platycentra),7.1897 (2 species), 6.1897 ,13.1900/1

Cuphea purpurea   (Bat Plant). Low growing brittle perennial shrub with flowers of blue and red. Requires moist protected position.

Cuphea salvadorensis   (Christmas Cigar Flower) Mexico, El Salvador

Dahlia imperialis (Tree dahlia) Very tall canes with double white, single white or pink flowers. Strikes from laying down cut canes.Central America 1.1875, 1A.1885

Deutzia gracilis – Slender Deutzia

Deutzia gracilis variegata  This erect and bushy deutzia has masses of fragrant white flowers in upright clusters for weeks in spring and early summer.   Height to 1.5m. Width 1m. Full sun to part shade. Beautiful fragrance, deciduous, frost tolerant and drought resistant.   Deutzia is named after the 18th century Dutch patron of botany, Johann van der Deutz.   Central Shrub Garden

Deutzia gracilis   Lax arching low deciduous shrub with pink flowers appearing along stems. Japan 1.1875 (3 deutzia species), 1A.1885 (3 species crenata, gracilis, scabra),  6.1897,  7.1897, 9.1851

Dianthera nodosa syn. Justicia nodosa compact shrub from Brazil It has unusual yet beautiful frilled pink flowers in the warmer months. Suitable for full sun or semi shaded position. Early colonial gardeners found that plants from such genera as Strobilanthes (called Goldfussia in those days), Justicia (known as Jacobinia in earlier times), Thunbergia and Ruellia thrived in our mild climate. Beautiful arching shrub with pink flowers. Easily struck from cutting. Brazil. Central Shrub Garden, NE Corner gardens

Dichorisandra thyriflora (Blue flowering ginger lily) forms tall clumps, beautiful mid blue flowers. Tropical Americas

Dombeya tiliacea named after a French botanist Joseph Dombey who collected plants in South America. Dombeya tiliacea  is a mallow plant species first described by Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher. It has Abutilon like (maple like) large leaves, single white pendulous flowers, upright shrub. Very vigourous Africa  1.1875 (D.tiliafolia), 1A.1885 (5 species), 6.1897 (D.floribunda)

Dombeya calanthe  syn. Dombeya burgessiae Dombeya burgessiae is a widespread and variable species growing from KwaZulu- Natal northwards to Tanzania. It occurs naturally on forest margins, hillsides and slopes and along stream banks. Aside from its use in horticulture, this plant is apparently enjoyed by black rhinos who reportedly eat both bark and leaves (Palmer & Pitman 1973, Trees of Southern Africa.). Tall shrub pink flowering , maple shaped leaves, flowers in clusters South East Africa

Duranta Lorentzii (Vanilla scented Duranta) syn.  Duranta serratifolia lush lime green evergreen shrub! The sparkling white blooms smell of sweet vanilla and so attractive to bees and butterflies. Duranta serratifolia was already described and the name validly published by August Heinrich Rudolf Grisebach. It was Carl Ernst Otto Kuntze, however, who reclassified it into todays valid botanical systematics in 1898.Duranta serratifolia is native to Argentina. Fenced Rose garden

Duranta repens. D.repens var. “Geisha girl”, “Sheenas gold”.  Most of our specicems make up the large and quite old southern hedge between the garden and the road. In spite of improvement in popular named varieties these large vigourous shrubs can dominate and become invasive in a warm climate. Caribbean, Central America  1.1875 (D.plumieri), 1A.1885 (plumierii, baumgartii), 2.1875, 5.1897, 7.1897 (D.plumneri), 9.1851. Front Embankment

Echium candicans   Moderate sized biennial with grey foliage and tall spikes of blue flowers. Spring-summer flowering Canary Islands  9.1851 (E.fruticosum)

Eranthemum pulchellum. Lovely sky blue single flowers for a short time in spring. An unspectacular low growing shrub for the rest of the year. India 1.1875 (13 species Eranthemum), 1A.1885

Escallonia macarantha (pink) Beautiful foliage of shiny small ovate leaves, sprawling shrub. Bright crimson flowers in summer on ours but other varieties available. South America  7.1897 (4 species), 1A.1885 (macrantha, montevidensis, rubra),   9.1851 (4 species),10.1855 (E.rubra)

Eupatorium megalophyllum   syn. Bartlettina sordida (blue mist flower) Tall growing shrub, large velvety leaves and heads of blue flowers in spring. Easily struck from cutting Mexico  1A.1885 (2 species),7.1897 (E.riparium)

Euphorbia cotinifolia   Along with Alternanthera these deciduous upright shrubs give burgundy/ red foliage accent in the warm climate garden.garden. Easily struck from cutting. Has irritant latex if cut. Africa. Central shrub garden, East Border Garden

Euphorbia leucocephalum   (snow flake) spectacular white flower bracts ,then goes bare in spring, before new leaves appear. Africa. North West Stone Circle

Euphorbia fulgens   Scarlet flowering, narrow leaves  In Mexico, they are often used as Christmas plants. They’re seen as more convenient than large conifers, and as they’re a local plant, they’re in plentiful supply. Mexico   North West Corner stone circle

Euphorbia hypericifolia “Diamond Frost” grows to a 50cm cushion and is spangled almost all year round with tiny, white flowers. Africa  . SE Stone Circle garden

Euphorbia milii   Low growing shrub with sharp thorns along vertical angular stems. Irritant latex, terminal coloured bracts. Potted, fromt verandah entrance. Madagascar 1.1875. 1A.1885 (E.bojeri)

1A.1885 Brisbane lists Euphorbia andrinoides, australia, bojeri, canariensis, fulgens, neriifolia, peplus, pilulifera, pulcherrima.

Euphorbia pulcherrima   (Poinsettia) A common garden shrub , tall growing with brightly coloured bracts of red (most famously), pink or cream. Irritant latex. Deciduous. Mexico  1.1875, 1A.1885, 7.1897 (E.splendens), 9.1851 (Poinsettia pulcherima), 14.1868 (Poinsettia)

Ervatamia coronarium    syn. Tabernaemontana divaricata (carnation of India) evergreen shrub with fragrant white flowers. India, cultivated in Pakistan 1A.1885 (Tabernaemontana coronaria), 13.1900/1

Excoecaria cochinchinensis   var. ‘Garden Clown’ Low growing plant with multicolour leaves, upper and reverse. In the same genus as the Milky mangrove,

Exochorda x macarantha “the bride” (Pearl Bush) Out of  zone but able to establish in our subtropical climate , beautiful white flowers on a lax shrub. Garden hybrid- East Asia  (syn.Spiraea grandiflora)

Felicia amelloides (Kingfisher daisy) Half hardy perennial , light blue flowers. South Africa. PRUNED THEN LOST YET AGAIN.

Forsythia intermedia  “Lynwood Gold” A deciduous shrub, with golden yellow flowers. The flowers are produced in the early spring before the leaves, bright yellow with a deeply four-lobed flower, the petals joined only at the base. These become pendant in rainy weather thus shielding the reproductive parts.  The genus is named after William Forsyth (1737–1804), a Scottish botanist who was royal head gardener and a founding member of the Royal Horticultural Society     New to our garden on trial 2012. and slow to establish. Replaced early 2016 with cultivar “Ferrand” China Pool Embankment x 2

Fuchsia x hybridum, F x hybridum var.”Fascination”,  Red Corolla, Purple sepals “Thalia” Lax shrub Fuchsias apparently struggle in our subtropical, often wet garden, with acid soil. Over a hundred Fuchsia species have been described, known by Europenas since the 18th Century. Tropical Americas. Refer Australian Fuchsia Society.  www.fuchsia.org.au 1A.1885 (20 garden varieties)2.1875,7.1897 (30 varieties), 9.1851 (varieties), 10.1855 (29 species and varieties)  East Border Garden, Fenced Rose garden, Central Shrub Garden

Fuchsia x hybridum  “Shower of Stars”flowers with dark red sepals and semi double white corollas East Border garden

Fuchsiax hybridum  “Annabel”Sepals white flushed pink. Corolla white veined pink. East Border garden

Fuchsiax hybridum “Carla Johnson” recurved, green-tipped, pale pinksepals and single, flared, white to pale pink corolla East Border garden

Fuchsia x hybridum  (white Shrub) from Rowenas garden East Border garden

Early Australian gardeners had access to new varieties within about a year of their European release and by the 1880s Australian catalogues listed over 400 cultivars of Fuchsia.

Fuchsia magellanica, commonly known as the hummingbird fuchsia or hardy fuchsia, is a species of flowering plant in the family Evening Primrose family (family Onagraceae), native to the lower Southern Cone of southern South America. Tropical Americas Orchid Walk

Fuchsia arborescens   (Lilac Fuchsia, Tree Fuchsia) Mid sized shrub with tiny pink flowers in clusters. Tropical Americas, Mexico Fenced Rose garden

Fuchsia boliviana is a species of Fuchsia native to southern Peru, Bolivia and northern Argentina. It is a medium evergreen shrub, growing to 2–4 m tall, rarely to 6 m, with a spreading, open habit. It has large, hairy mid-green leaves and red petioles. It has large drooping corymbs up to 20 cm long borne in late summer and autumn of scarlet red flowers with the individual flowers 3–7 cm long. A white-flowering form exists named ‘Alba’, with a white tube and scarlet petals.[2] After flowering it bears small red-purple, edible fruit 10–26 mm long.[3][4]Fuchsia boliviana is widely grown in shade or part-shade in cooler, subtropical climates. Plants require protection from direct sun and temperatures exceeding 40 °C. The plants are hardy to about -4 °C for short periods. Propagation is by seed or cuttings. East border Garden.

Fuchsia fulgens is a soft-wooded shrub with thickened, tuberous underground parts, growing 0.5 – 3 metres tall Comments: Introduced in the 1830s to European gardeners. Named after Leonard Fuchs a 16th century doctor and botanist. East border Garden

Gardenia augusta syn. Gardenia jasminoides var. ‘florida’  “Magnifica”, “gold magic”. Glossy evergreen shrub with beautifully perfumed double white flowers. “Gold Magic” the flowers alter to yellow then ‘gold’ with variable effect. Prone to scale and mineral deficiency without maintenance.  Southern China, Japan, Garden hybrids  1.1875 (17 species,2 varieties G.florida), 1A.1885 (6 species incl. G.florida, G.radicans, G.thunbergia), 6.1897 (‘Gardenia sorts’), 7.1897, 9.1851, 10.1855 (G.florida)

Garrya elliptica James Roof’ is a large vigorous bushy evergreen shrub with leathery dark green leaves. Beautiful display in winter of long catkin like tassels up to 30cm long, great to espalier.   It can survive in a wide range of soils but grows best in a well-drained, moderately fertile soil, in full sun or partial shade. It prefers a sheltered, sunny spot and can live in coastal conditions. This shrub does not like to be moved so it is best to avoid transplanting Grows 3.5m wide and 2.5m high. California Oregon. Lost 2015

Gmelina hystrix   syn G.philippensis Sprawling plant with thorny stems similar to Bougainvillea. Pendulous tight yellow flowers are the main attraction. South East Asia

Grewia occidentalis (lavender star flower)  A small, scrambling, deciduous tree reaching a height of about 3m, its purple, star-shaped flowers appear in summer, followed by distinctive four-lobed berries (from where it gets its common names “crossberry” and “four-corner”). These shiny reddish-brown fruits remain on the tree for long periods and are favoured by fruit-eating birds. The simple leaves are shiny, deep green and sometimes slightly hairy . Named after the Nehemia Grew, a famous botanical illustrator. Does shape with pruning and may be used as a hedging plant. Southern Africa  1.1875, 1A.1885

Hellebore orientalis x hybrids  “Court Ladies”, “Hello Thoroughbred”. In a very protected southerly corner under the moist feet of large Azaleas our Hellebores may be at the limit of their climate range  Garden var.

Hibiscus acetosella (bronze/burgundy foliage) Hibiscus acetosella ‘Voodoo’ (Cranberry or African Rosemallow) Deeply cut crenate leaves which are dark maroon to a patchy red/green appearance. Solitary flowers vary in color and are most often the dark pink to maroon that is characteristic of the foliage with darker vein-like markings. H. acetosella first recognized in 1896 by French botanists as a distinct plant and given the name it currently has. The plant was probably first found growing around African villages in the southern Congo-Angola-Zambia region. Easily struck from cutting. Not unlike Rosella. East Africa Front Path garden

Hibiscus insularis   (Phillip Island Hibiscus). Glossy green foliage on erect shrub. Flowers yellow with red throat. Phillip Island in the Norfolk Island group. Hibiscus insularis is a species of hibiscus that is endemic to Phillip Island, a small island to the south of Norfolk Island. The entire natural extent of this species is just two small clumps, and each clump apparently consists of multiple separate stems of a single genotype. It has been propagated and planted more widely on Phillip Island, but only vegetatively which does not increase the genetic diversity. Seedlings apparently have not been observed in the wild. It produces greenish-yellow flowers that fade to mauve through most of the year. Central Shrub Garden

Hibiscus mutabilis   (Confederate Rose). Large Double white flowers and double pink bourne at the same time . Fully deciduous. Easy to strike from cutting. China  1.1875 (2 varieties), 9.1851, 10.1855 (2 var. incl double) Central Shrub garden

Hibiscus mutabilis   var. “Tony” single crimson. Large single flowers of a bright crimson. Deciduous. easy to strike from cutting. Garden hybrid? Central Shrub garden

Hibiscus syriacus ( Rose of Sharon) Fully deciduous, in single mauve, double white, double red. Very hardy and long lived. Flowers will close if brought inside. Southern Asia-India to China 1.1875 (4 varieties), 1A.1885, 6.1897, 7.1897, 10.1855 (?H.indicum), 14.1868 Central Shrub garden

Hibiscus radiatus is native to southern and southeast Asia. It has 15 cm yellow flowers that have a purple center. Leaves are dentate, with upper leaves lobed into three or five parts. It is frequently grown as a vegetable or medicinal herb NW Corner

Hibiscus rosa sinensis var ‘Swan Lake’ standard (white), var. ‘lollipop’ (single pink). Reliable plants which respond best with pruning.Garden hybrid. Originally from China and South East Asia, then Pacific Islands.1.1875 (9 varieties), 1A.1885, 6.1897, 7.1897, 9.1851, 10.1855 (?H.sanguinea), 13.1900/1 refer  www.hibiscus.org.au Queensland Hibiscus Society. The history of Hibiscus in Australia dates back to the early 1800s when the MacArthurs planted single red Hibiscus in NSW. Criss Cross Garden

Hibiscus schizopetalus   (Japanese Lantern Hibiscus) Finely divided petals and long stamen. Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique

Hibiscus schizopetalum x rosa sinensis   Very hardy single red flowering hibiscus which strikes easily from cutting. Garden hybrid- East Africa  1A.1885 (H.rosa-sinensis var.schizopetalus), 13.1900/1

Holmskiolia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant) a large, sprawling evergreen tropical shrub native to the lower elevations of the southern Himalayas. First growing erect, the new, young branches dart outward and weep creating a scrambling plant that is almost vine-like. The genus name commemorates Johan Theodor Holmskiold (1731-1793), a Danish botanist who wrote Beata ruris otia fungis Danicis, published in two volumes in 1790 and 1799. It is native to the Himalayas (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar) Chinese-hat plant is a large, sprawling evergreen tropical shrub native to the lower elevations of the southern Himalayas. First growing erect, the new, young branches dart outward and weep creating a scrambling plant that is almost vine-like. orange flowers. Poor flower frequency in our garden. Northern India 1A.1885 Central Lawn and Border

Holmskioldia sanguinea “Blue Mandarin”.  Beautiful pendulous mauve/pale blue flowers on this sparse shrub. Garden hybrid Central Shrub Garden

Holmskiodia sanguinea ‘Mandarin Rouge’ (red) Central Shrub garden and Central Lawn and border

Holmskiodia sanguinea ‘Mandarin Sunrise’ (yellow-greenish yellow flowers) Central Shrub Garden

Hydrangea macrophylla   . Brittle deciduous shrubs with large flower heads of white or blue in our acidic soil. In alkaline conditions the same plants would have pink flowers. Strike easily from cutting.Japan 1.1875 (H.hortensis),  2.1875, 1A.1885 (4 species hortensis, japonica 3 var, Otasko, paniculata),  7.1897 (7 varieties), 9.1851 (H.japonica, H.hortensis), 10.1855 (H.japonica, H.hortensis), 14.1868 (hortensis)

Hydrangea macrophylla ‘maiko’    A variety of hydrangea with “Lace-cap’ flowers.

Hydrangea macrophylla variegatum  A garden variety Hydrangea with variegated foliage. Quite strong to establish if slow.

Hydrangea scandens   subspecies chinensis f.formosanum. A white lacecap Hydrangea with very narrow leaves. Southern Taiwan

Hydrangea dichroa versicolor .   var.“Oriental evergreen” An evergreen Hydrangea which has quite tall growth and blue/white flower panicles. Strikes easily from cutting. China

Iochroma cyaneum.   Tall growing untidy shrub with remarkable blue/black tubular flowers. Strikes easily from cutting. Resents drying out. Contains toxic alkaloids, all parts poisonous as for  Brugmansia spp. Ecuador  1.1875 (Jochroma 2 species), 1A.1885 (Iochroma tubulosa), 7.1897 (Jochroma tubulosa), 9.1851 (Jochroma tubulosa), 10.1855 (Iochroma tubulosa)

Iochroma warscewiczii   Tall lax shrub which so far has been reluctant to produce it’s mauve flowers in our garden. South America

Iochroma coccinea x hybrid “wine red” An untidy lax shrub which has tubular flowers of crimson/ red in contrast to I. cyaneum. Garden hybrid Criss cross garden

Iochroma fushiodes   Iochroma fushiodes is a medium, evergreen shrub that flowers in Spring, Summer and Autumn.  It has salmon orange tubular flowers in pendular clusters.   Can also be pruned to shape as a specimen shrub at the back of a perennial border, or container grown Height 3 – 3.5m Width 3m. Frost tolerant to -2. Then it needs protection. Drought hardy.

Indigophera decora (false indigo) Low growing creeping shrub which produces pretty pink flowers.China, Korea, Japan.7.1897 (I.decora), 10.1855 (I.australia)

Iresine lindenii   (blood leaf) Beautiful red foliage accent under trees. Low brittle sub-shrub. Strikes from cutting.  Ecuador ?syn. I.herbstii.1.1875, 1A.1885 , 13.1900/1

Iresine herbstii   Green and yellow coloured foliage accent in shade or protected spot. Iresine easily struck from cutting.  Brazil ?syn.I.lindenii  1.1875, 1A.1885 (var.reticulata), 13.1900/1

Jasminium sambac (arabian jasmine) Slow growing evergreen climbing shrub with support. Single white summer flowers of exquisite perfume. South Western and Southern Asia  10.1855 (J.zambac)

Jasminium sambac var.“Chinese Emperor”,var “Grand Duke of Tuscany” These varieties ?sports  of J.sambac have been very slow to establish and their small double flowers may be less attractive than the species itself. India , southern Asia

Jacobina, Justicia and Libonia are names sometimes used synonymously depending on the age of plant references used.

Justicia brandegeana   syn. Bellerephone guttata (shrimp plant) Low growing lax shrub. We have yellow and bronze flower colour varieties. Remarkably tolerant of dry shade.reliable.Central and south America 1.1875 (9 species Justicia)

Justicia carnea (both white and pink hybrids) Interesting tall “candles” of flower bracts on tough shrub. This low maintenance, self seeding plant introduces colour under trees in a warm climate garden. Central and South America  1.1875 (J.carnea, J.alba), 1A.1885 (Jacobinia magnifica), 7.1897, 9.1851, 10.1855

Justicia betonica (White) This tough, self seeding tall plant has white flowers, with a touch of pink, not unlike Salvia but more upright. Tropical East Africa  1.1875, 7.1897

Justicia brandegeeana (Mexican shrimp plant, shrimp plant or false hop) is an evergreen shrub in the genus Justicia of the family Acanthaceae, native to Mexico, and also naturalized in Florida.It grows to 1 m tall (rarely more) with spindly limbs. The leaves are oval, green, 3-7.5 cm long. The tiny flowers are white, extending from yellow or red bracts which look a bit like a shrimp, hence the shrub’s common name, shrimp flower.The species is named after the American botanist Townshend Stith Brandegee (1843–1925); the scientific name is commonly seen misspelled “brandegeana“. Front Path Garden, Central Lawn and Borders.

Justicia rizzinii syn Libonia floribunda, Jacobinia pauciflora. A species of flowering plant in the family Acanthaceae, native to Brazil.It is a dwarf, rounded evergreen shrub growing to 30–60 cm (12–24 in) tall and wide, with downy stems and leaves, and spikes of nodding, tubular flowers of yellow shading to scarlet at the base. Each pair of leaves has one leaf smaller than the other. It requires a frost-free environment, so is often grown under glass in temperate regions. Lovely compact shrub in garden, evergreen with small tubular flowers of yellow/red. Brazil. Central Lawn and Borders.

Kalmia latifolia , mountain laurel It is a beautiful shrub, from 4 to 8 feet high, sometimes attaining the height of a small tree, with crooked stems and a rough bark. Sheep laurel, or more properly Mountain laurel, inhabits most parts of the United States, on rocky bills and elevated grounds, and in damp soil, sometimes forming a dense thicket, with a profusion of beautiful rose-colored flowers which appear in mid summer. The plant was first recorded in America in 1624, but it was named after Pehr Kalm, who sent samples to Linnaeus in the 18th century. North America  East Border garden below jetty SADLY BUT PREDICTABLY LOST 2016

Kerria japonica flore pleno A tall arching shrub with apple green foliage and bright yellow double flowers in spring and summer.China  1.1875, 1A.1885, 1A.1885,  6.1897,7.1875, 9.1851, 10.1855

Kolwitzia amabilis   “Pink Cloud”. A tiny specimen introduced to the garden 2012. Related to Abelia the hope is that this beautiful spring flowering shrub will establish as well in this garden. Tring again with 2 from ‘White House Nursery’ 2016

Lantana montevideiensis   This low growing shrub has mauve flowers and healthy foliage which has a distinctive odour when crushed. This species has not proven to be as invasive as L. camara.South America. 1.1875 (6 spp including L.purpurea), 7.1897, 9.1851 (3 Lantana species), 10.1855 (3 Lantana species)

Lagerstroemia indica.   (Crepe myrtle) pink and mauve unnamed varieties. A beautiful tall shrub or statuesque tree. Deciduous, the overall shape, bark and flowers are all very attractive.  India, China, Korea 1A.1885,.9.1851, 14.1868

Lagerstroemia speciosa, (Queen crepe myrtle) This is a lovely tree rather than a shrub. The leaves and crimson/pink flowers are much larger L.indica.South East Asia, India,Phillipines.  1A.1885 (L.flos-reginea), 14.1868 (L.regia)

Leonotis leonurus   Lax perennial which needs support . White flowers resembling Justicia or Plectranthus. South Africa  1.1875, 1A.1885, 7.1897, 10.1855

Lobelia laxiflora Mexican lobelia, Narrow leaf shrub , orange and yellow flowers. It is also considered poisonous. The plant contains alkaloids and other toxic oils that can cause vomiting, diarrhea or other problems if consumed. Introduced to Britain in 1825.    Mexico, South, Central, and North America as far north as Arizona in the United States Central Lawn and border garden near pool fence

Loropetalum chinensis (Standard white Fringe flower) and var. ‘China Pink’  Beautiful tough shrub for deep bronze new foliage. Requires pruning to maintain shape. Will tolerate sun or shade. Both foliage and flowers make this quite large shrub attractive. Japan and South East Asia.

Luculia “White Frill”   L. gratissima. Flowers large and pure white, pink in bud, heavily scented, in early June. Very dainty, pretty new form. Yamina rare plants introduction. Luculia gratissima introduced to Europe in 1816. ‘A native of Nepal and Silhet, originally classed with Cinchona.  According to Dr. Carey, in Flora Indica,1813 it is a small branching tree, growing to the height of sixteen feet, found on the smaller hills in exposed situations, where it flowers nearly all the year.  He says it is impossible to conceive anything more beautiful than this tree, when covered with its numerous rounded panicles of pink, very fragrant, large blossoms.’   Luculia dont like us, but we live in hope. In Camden Park NSW 1850 and 1957 catalogues, obtained from Kew gardens. Garden hybrid from Himalayan Chinese species. East border garden below jetty

Luculia grandiflora A tiny specimen planted from our propagation area into Rock Stone Circle Garden

Malphigia coccigera (Barbados holly} Low growing shrub with holly like foliage and small pink flowers in summer. West indies  1.1875 (2 varieties),1A.1885 (2 speces incl M.coccifera).

Malvaviscus arboreus   These are a lovely strong accent plant resembling hibiscus. The red or pink flowers remain folded closed and hang down. Central America  1.1875, 1A.1885 (M.arborens)

Medinella myriantha   var. ‘Pixi’ Subtropical epiphytic shrub which needs moisture, drainage and shade/part shade. Dramatic tassals of pink flowers in summer. Phillipines.  1.1875 (M.speciosus),1A.1885 (M.exiuria), 13.1900/1 (M.magnifica)

Melastoma sanguinium   Brittle shrub with form and habit reminiscent of  Tibouchina spp. Single pink-mauve flowers in spring  South East asia.1A.1885 (M.sanguinea)

Mellianthus major   ( Honey bush) Perhaps out of it’s natural zone in a subtropical garden this plant is grown for it’s serrated and folded leaves, more than it’s red flowers. South Africa 1.1875, 9.1851, 13.1900/1

Magnolia acuminata x denudata Butterflies’ usually forms a small tree with an upright central leader or sometimes a multi-stemmed shrub. It has yellow cup to star-shaped flowers .   Genus name honors Pierre Magnol, French botanist (1638-1715). Bred by Phil Savage USA

Magnolia x loebneri    “Merrill”   M. kobus x M. stellata. White flowers reminiscent of Magnolia stellata in spring. Deciduous.

Magnolia liliiflora   cv. “Vulcan” Candles of Mauve pink in spring. Deciduous magnolia.

Michelia champaca (Himalaya magnolia) Lovely open small tree with large leaves that may hang down. Yellow perfumed flowers in spring/summer.Foothills of the Himalayas  1.1875, 1A.1885, 13.1900/1

Michelia doltsopa var “silver cloud” Tall growing Michelia with perfumed white flowers, late summer early winter. Quite a sparse shrub or small tree when young. China- Garden hybrid 1.1875 (M.doltsopa)

Michelia x hybrid “bubbles” (M.doltsopa x M.figo) Strong open pyramidal growth, delicious perfume on small rounded Magnolia like flowers early winter. Garden hybrid

Michelia x hybrid “Mixed up miss” (M.doltsopa x M.figo)  Similar in flower and form to M. ‘bubbles’. Tall growing shrub or small tree

Michelia pumila “coco” Strong rounded evergreen shrub. Yellow tinge to strongly perfumed flowers. This plant is sold quite commonly. As with most Michelias they seem quite easy to establish and low maintenance with minimal care in our elevated subtropical climate. China

Michelia yunnanensis Very open evergreen growth and small leaves, beautiful fragrant open star like flowers in summer. China

Michelia yunnanensis var. “Oriental Pearl” A tall, open, evergreen lax shrub with small foliage and small white perfumed flowers in summer. China garden hybrid

Michelia figo (port wine magnolia) Commonly sold as an evergreen landscaping or hedging plant these can grow into a small tree. Dull yellow flowers tinged with pink are often hidden in the foliage. Intense sweet perfume from mature specimens as with other Michelias China   1A.1885 (Magnolia fuscata), 6.1897 (?Magnolia fuscata)

Michelia figo (“Queen of the night”). As with many varietal Michelias the features which make this hybrid distinct from the species are quite subtle, in this case an increase in size of leaves and flowers. China, garden hybrid.

Megakepasma erythrodamys (Brazilian red coat) Lax brittle tall shrub with red flower panicles. Quite dramatic form or flower colour in shade.  Venezuela

Metrosideros tormentosa variegata .(New Zealand Christmas bush)Variegated variety of a common landscaping plant. These are very hardy. Pacific Islands 1.1875, 1A.1885 (M.scandens), 7.1897, 9.1851, 13.1900/1

Mussaenda phillipica .Mussaenda ‘Queen Sirikit’ (Mussaenda ‘Dona Hilaria x Dona Aurora’) is named for Queen Consort of Thailand, the longest reigning head of state in the world. It is possibly the most widely grown Mussaenda in the world. It has multiple pale pink sepals which have a distinct darker edge. Flowers are bright yellow. Following heavy rain, the weight of the flower heads has been known to break branches. Mussaenda philippica (Tropical Dogwood) is native to the Philippines, Indonesia and New Guinea. The flowers have white sepals and orangy-yellow flowers. It grows in cultivation to a a shrub 1.8 to 2.5 metres (6 to 7 feet) high by 1.2 to 1.8 metres (4 to 6 feet) wide. This species is less widely seen than its well known cultivar Mussaenda philippica ‘Dona Aurora’ (Dona Aurora, Buddha’s Lamp). This was a chance sport first collected in 1915 by Calixto Mabesa on Mt Makiling and then recollected by Hugh Curran and Mamerto Sulit at the College of Forestry grounds at the University of the Philippines Los Banos in 1930. This cultivar has multiple floral sepals (often 5 per flower) instead of just one. This was propagated and dedicated in 1930 to Mrs Aurora Quezon, wife of the Philippines President. This plant is the parent of almost all hybrids. Criss Cross garden west border

Mussaenda phillipica  “Dona Luz” Mussaenda ‘Dona Luz’ (M. ‘Dona Hilaria x Dona Aurora’) is named after Philippines First lady Luz Banzon-Magsaysay. It has multiple shrimp pink sepals which are inclined to turn under at their tips. Criss Cross garden west border

Odontonema strictum syn. Justicia coccinea (firespike) Tall perennial shrub with glossy foliage, red terminal flower spikes in summer, grows easily from cutting for a warm climate garden. Central America

Osmanthus fragrans    Tall somewhat drab shrub, exquisite perfume from tiny white flowers hidden by the foliage. This perfume is the justification for growing this plant.China

Osmanthus heterophylla variegata.   Holly like variegated foliage makes this shrub useful in the garden. Tiny fragrant flowers. Japan  1.1875 (O.ilicfolius variegatus),7.1897

Otocanthus caeruleus   (Little Blue Boy, Brazilian Snapdragon)

Pachystacys lutea.   Low growing shrub with golden flower spikes in summer. Tolerates shade and illuminates these areas of the garden as for Justicia carnea. Peru

Pavonia coccinea   syn, Lebretonia coccinea . The genus named for Manuel le Breton a French Botonist.  ‘Shooting Star’ Erect shrub with red flowers not unlike the rosella Brazil    Central Shrub Garden

Pentas lanceolata   Unnamed varieties in pink, white and crimson/red single flowers in heads, in summer on a lax, brittle low growing shrub. These tolerate dry shade and are easily struck from cutting. Tropical East Africa  1.1875 (P.carnea) 1A.1885 (P.carnea)

Philadelphus “Belle Etoile”This wonderful small shrub has lime green oval shaped leaves.  In Spring, it grows upright sprays of single white, outward bell sprays of flowers with a pink eye in the centre. Each flower is about 3cm in diameter. The flowering shrub has a lovely orange blossom fragrance; hence the common name ‘mock orange’.  The foliage then turns yellow in Autumn and then falls off. Winter dormant.Height 1.5 – 2m. Width 1 – 1.5m. Full sun/ part shade.

Philadelphus mexicanus (Mock Orange) From cutting throughout the garden Mexico Guatamala

Philidelpus spp.   Single and Double forms . Our deciduous shrubs do not immediately resemble P. mexicanus but may be a hybrid of P. coronarius producing long canes with bright green foliage and white single, perfumed flowers in summer. Slow to establish. Widespread in temperate areas, many garden hybrids. Southern Europe 1.1875 (4 species), 1A.1885 (4 species coronarius, inodorus, mexicanus speciosus), 7.1897 94 spp), 9.1851

Phormium tenax (red flax var. ‘Bronze Baby’) Architectural tall plant producing strap like leaves in a bronze/red colour. New Zealand 1.1875, 7.1897

Photinea x fraseri “Red Robyn” x 4  Criss  Cross Garden west border

Photinea glabra While Photinea may become a small tree it is often grown for hedging or as a pruned shrub to take advantage of the bright red new foliage. China, Korea, Japan  1.1875 (P.senata) ,1A.1885 (P.japonica, P. serrulata), 9.1851 (P.arbutifolia), 14.1868

Physocarpus opulifolius purpureus   Referred to as Ninebark or Atlantic ninebark, is a species of flowering plant in the rose family Rosaceae, native to eastern North America. Don’t get it confused with Hydrangea radiata, which is also sometimes called ninebark for the ragged peeling of its bark. North America LOST 2016

Pieris ryukyuensis “temple bells” Lovely slow growing shrub. New foliage burgundy/red, Chains of small white bell like flowers in spring. Islands between Japan and Taiwan

Pieris japonica  “Christmas Cheer” “ Valley Rose”, Chains of pink bell like flowers in spring, beautiful red new foliage. Garden hybrids.

Pittosporum tenuifolium. Small tree to 10m.    The flowers generally go unnoticed because of their colour, a very dark reddish-purple, and are scented only at night. It is found growing wild in coastal and lower mountain forest areas up to an altitude of 900m New Zealand             Stone circle

Pittosporum tenuifolium “Irene Patterson”           stone circle

Plumbago auriculata , standard pale blue, white or mid-blue var. ‘Royal Cape’. Reliable sprawling landscaping or hedging plant, summer flowering. Will spread via root runners or cover low growing structures. Very drought and shade tolerant. South Africa 1.1875 (3 spp incl P. capensis), 1A.1885 (P.zeylandica var.capensis),  6.1897,  7.1897, 9.1851 (P.capensis) , 14.1868

Plumbago indica (syn. P. rosea), Indian leadwort, scarlet leadwort. Plumbago indica  Plumbago indica grows to 2 m (7 ft) tall by 1 m (3 ft) wide. It is a spreading evergreen shrub with oval leaves. It produces racemes of deep pink or scarlet flowers in winter. Central Shrub garden.  Southeast Asia, Philipines, Indonesia China

Plumbago zeylanica, Ceylon leadwort,  Scrambling plant with white flowers . central shrub garden in the North. Plumbago zeylanica .Plant extracts have shown potent mosquito larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti while showing no toxicity to fish. South Asia

Plumeria rubra (Frangipani) The well known Frangipani is a small tree or large shrub, deciduous , with large leaves. The common variety has a white flower with yellow throat but many other colour varieties exist from red, pink through to apricot and ‘fruit salad’. Perfumed. Strikes from stem cuttings.  Central America, Mexico, Venezuela  1.1875 (P.acutifolia), 1A.1885 (P.acuminata ‘Franchipanier or Pagoda tree).

Posoqueria longiflora  Needle Flower Tree. Long tubular white flowers with distinctive night time fragrance. Grows to a modest sized tree in tropical areas and will flower throughout the year as long as the light level is high and the temperatures are warm. It has spreading branches and large glossy, deep green leaves. A somewhat slow grower, it forms clusters of blooms on the ends of the newest growth. Once established, it can tolerate varying light conditions and watering. The genus was established by Aublet in 1775 on material from French Guiana. South America  North west Corner garden

Pseuderanthemum laxiflorum  ‘Purple Riot” shooting star. This is a well-branched herbaceous perennial to small shrub with opposite leaves and purple flowers held singly or in small groups near branch tips. This plant is native to Polynesia Fiji Islands   Central Shrub garden

Prunus persica ( unnamed variety dwarf ornamental Peach). Our prunus ornamental varieties may give reliable if short display of double pink flowers in spring. These benefit from disease control in our subtropical climate Garden hybrid  1A.1885,  7.1897

Punica granatum   Var. ‘Flore pleno alba’, ‘Andre le Roi’ (red and double white ornamental pomegranate). Deciduous ornamental shrub to small tree with spring flowers followed by fruit West Asia 1.1875, 1A.1885,  2.1875, 7.1897, 9.1851, 14.1868

Pycnostachys urticifolia. Brittle,upright salvia like shrub with bright mid-blue flower panicles. Seed formation which follows has long sharp spikes. Easily raised from cutting, tolerates dry shaded position. South Africa

Radermachera sinica   var ‘Summerscent’  Evergreen shrub with large scented flowers in summer. East Asia

Raphiolepis delacourtii x indica “Apple Blossom”  East border NE corner of house

Rhaphiolepsis indica. (Indian hawthorne) R. indica “Springtime”,  a common, sometimes overlooked landscaping plant. These are very hardy but do not seem to thrive in our cooler moist conditions. Flowers quite charming on close inspection. Japan and China 1.1875 (2 species), 1A.1885 (indica, ovata) 6.1897,  7.1897 (R.ovata), 14.1868

Reinwardtia indica (yellow flax) Strong yellow single flowers and low upright habit. This is a cheerful and striking border plant. May self seed. Northern India and China  1A.1885 (Reinwardtia trigym)

Retama monosperma   syn. (Genista monosperma, Spartium monosperma, Lygos monosperma)  Mediterranean     Blue trellis garden

Rhododendron ponticum This cool climate plant has prospered with protection on the cool side of our house. It has lovely mauve flowers in spring and similar cultural requirements to the Azaleas. (Rhododendron indica) growing around it. Spain-Portugal  1.1875, 1A.1885,  2.1875, 9.1851, 13.1900/1

Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ceylon hill cherry) Lovely wooly foliage and pink single peach like flowers followed by purple berries or ‘cherries’. Very hardy and even shade tolerant once established.  Southern asia 1.1875 (R.tomentosus), 13.1900/1

Rondoletia leucophylla var. “sweet petite, Russian star” Bright pink single flowers on a low growing shrub which forms arching canes.  Central America, garden hybrid  1A.1885 (3 species hirsuta, speciosa, versicolor)

Rondeletia amoena Evergreen shrub. Rough or leathery foliage. Pink flower clusters in Spring

Rondeletia splendens Pink flowers , ovate leaves resemble Spiraea

Ruellia elegans   (Brazilian petunia)   This species has open-faced coral-red blossoms from late spring until fall. a large native range from Chile to Brazil.

Ruellia graecizans  (red Christmas pride). Low growing shade tolerant  subshrub with red bell like flowers in summer. Self seeds easily. South America

Ruellia macrantha .Tall upright shrub with large leaves and pink single bell shaped flowers Brazil 1.1875 (3 Ruellia species), 1A.1885 (formosa, herbstii), 9.1851 (R.formosa), 13.1900/1 (R.elegens, R.rosea)

Ruscus microglossus   (Butchers Broon) Low growing tough plant with modified shoots resembling leaves with the tiny flower carried at the centre Europe North Africa  1A.1885 (R.aculcatus)

Russellia equisitiformis   syn. R.juncea incl varieties ‘tangerine falls’ and ‘lemon falls’ fine foliage, evergreen clump forming shrub with tiny tubular flowers usually in red. The above named varieties have flowers in pastel shades 1A.1885 (R.juncea),  6.1897,  9.1851, 13.1900/1

Sambucus nigra (elderberry) Tall growing perennial or shrub with white flower panicles, followed by ‘elder berries’. Europe- North Africa 1.1875, 1A.1885, 7.1897, 9.1851, 13.1900/1. Criss Cros Garden Western boundary.

Scutellaria costaricana  (Scarlet skullcap) Tender perennial native to Costa Rica, where it grows in the mountain forests at elevations as high as 2,000 m (6,500 ft). It is grown as a house plant for its orange- red flowers which are borne in rich terminal clusters. It is a member of the mint family. East Border garden

Solanum mammosum (Udder Plant, “Apple of Sodom”) Erect shrub with pendulous small flowers typical of Solanum but producing bright yellow poisonous fruit with unusual shape suggesting a cows udder. The furostanol glycoside in the fruit makes it not only toxic but of medical interest.  South America LOST 2016

Solanum rantonnetii (standard and variegated variety “khloe”) An untidy low growing shrub with purple single ‘potato flowers’. When established these plants can be quite striking. Argentina Paraguay 13.1900/  Stone Circle garden, Criss Cross garden

Spiraea x bumada  Pink. Spiraea japonica is one of the parent plants of Spiraea x bumalda. Flowering semideciduous Spiraea China North west Corner garden

Spiraea bumada   (S.albiflora x S.japonica) var. ‘Golden Glow’ Low growing shrub with golden yellow new foliage and pink flower heads Japan garden hybrid lost 2011 and 2016.

Spiraea bumada   (S.albiflora x S.japonica) var. ‘pink Ice’ Foliage almost white with pale spots . Clusters of pink flower heads garden hybrid

Spiraea bumada  (S.albiflora x S.japonica) var. ‘Anthony Waterer”  A low growing plant with heads of pink flowers in spring.  Garden hybrid

Spiraea cantoniensis  (double white may) A moderately tall arching shrub with a cloud of small double white flowers in spring. Will tolerate sun or shade and may be used as a landscaping or hedging plant. China Japan (syn. S.corymbolosa) 1.1875 (S.japonicum, S.corymbosa), 1A.1885 (4 species), 7.1897 (S.japonica, S.douglassi, S.prunifolia, S.reevsiana), 9.1851 (S.corymbosa, S.prunifolia), 13.1900/1, 14.1868 (S.corymbosa)

Spiraea Japonica   “Goldflame”  A deciduous shrub.   Beautiful lime green foliage with clusters of tiny pink flowers in spring. A wonderful small shrub for those areas that are to tough to grow anything. Height to 1.5m. Width to 1m.  Full sun to part shade. Frost and drought tolerant   Japan Central Shrub garden

Spiraea prunifolia ‘Plena Bridal wreath spirea, bears tiny double white flowers on bare branches early in spring, before the glossy green leaves appear. Some red autumn color. Spiraea prunifolia florepleno had a double introduction into Europe.  J. Saul of Washington D.C., writing in the Journal of the Horticultural Society in 1852 commented: ‘When this plant first made its appearance in England, and in some parts of Europe, it was hailed as a great acquisition.  Mr. Fortune sent it from China to the Horticultural Society’s Garden at Chiswick [in 1844] and Mr. Van Houtte had it from Dr. Van Siebold’ [who found it cultivated in a Japanese garden]. Van Houtte placed a large advertisement in ‘The Gardeners Chronicle’ of 1847, including a list of 95 individuals and organisations to whom he had sold plants, including Veitch’s and Loddiges’ nurseries.In the 1850 and 1857 catalogues at Camden Park NSW.  China  West Driveweay Garden , East Border garden, Northwest Corner Garden

Stachyurus praecox, from Japan, is a spreading shrub growing to 4 m (13 ft) tall by 3 m (10 ft) wide. Pendent, bell-shaped, primrose yellow flowers are borne in winter and spring. The Latin specific epithet praecox means “early”, referring to the exceptionally early flowering season. This plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit.[3] S. chinensis, from China, is also found in cultivation. (cuttings from Rowena)   Lost

Streptosolen jamesonii   (Marmelade bush, Orange Browallia) Lax evergreen with yellow flowers to yellow and orange South America.

Strobilanthes anisophyllus   (Goldfussia) A mid sized shrub, evergreen with long thin leaves and mauve tubular bell flowers . May self seed.   Tropical Asia   1.1875 (Goldfussia anisophyllus), 1A.1885, 7.1897 (G.anisophylla), 9.1851 (G.anisophylla), 10.1875, 13.1900/1

Strobilanthes dyeriantha   (Persian Shield) a low growing shrub with mauve and green pattern spear shaped leaves. Needs both shade and moisture tropical Asia 1.1875 Araucaria walk, East Border garden

Strobilanthes cusia syn.S.flaccidifolius Tall lax plant ,spring flowering with pendulous crimson bells. Needs moisture to establish. China.

Tecomaria capensis aurea (Yellow cape honeysuckle) var.“Golden chimes”  tough interesting plant may sucker invasively. Bright yellow flowers are very attractive. Species has orange flowers.  South East Africa 1.1875 (Tecoma capensis), 1A.1885 (Tecoma capensis), 9.1851 (Tecoma capensis), 13.1900/1, 14.1868

Tecomaria x hybrid “Hammers rose” Interesting dusty salmon pink flower colour. Tough invasive shrub needs pruning. South East Africa, garden hybrid

Tetradenia riparia   syn. Iboza riparia  Tall brittle shrub with grey green foliage with a strong musky-camphorated scent when crushed. Clusters of small creamy white flowers Africa 13.1900/1

Thunbergia erecta (Kings mantle) Untidy, sprawling sub-shrub. Beautiful purple trumpet flowers with a yellow throat in spring/ early summer. Tropical Africa  1A.1885, 13.1900/1

Thunbergia erecta (White)    Cuttings

Tibouchina lepidota var. “Alstonville”  Perhaps more of a small tree than a large shrub with quite brittle branches. Spectacular covering of single purple flowers in summer. Brazil, Australian garden hybrid.

Tibouchina mutabilis   var. “Noeline”  Pink and white flowers bourne together on a large shrub or small tree. Flowers early summer. South America, Australian garden hybrid.

Vaccinium corymbosum (Blueberry)  Many commercially sold species with English common names including “blueberry” are currently classified in section Cyanococcus of the genus Vaccinium and come predominantly from North America. Many North American native species of blueberries are grown commercially in the Southern Hemisphere in Australia, New Zealand and South American nations. Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with indigo-colored berries, shrub to 1 meter tall, loving acid soil. Blueberries are grown all over Australia. The warmer areas of Australia grow Southern Highbush and Rabbiteye (low chill) varieties while the cooler areas and areas that experience frost grow Northern Highbush (high chill) varieties. Central Shrub Garden.

Rhododendron vireya “Dixie”  Yellow Tropical Rhododendron  Near Plough inn

Vireya (Rhododendron vireya)       “Elegant bouquet”

“Krakatoa”  “Saxon Glow”

“Sunny”

“Archangel”

“Sweet Rosalie”

Very vermillion”

“Coral Seas”

“Buttermilk”

“Toff”

Vireyas originate from South East Asia to New Guinea in elevated locations and many garden hybrids are produced. See Australian Rhododendron Society  www.ausrhodo.asn.au 1.1875 (?Rhododendron javanicum), 9.1851 (R.javanicum)

Viburnum opulus                                                   Hydrangea walk

Viburnum macrocephalum   (Chinese Snowball bush). Semideciduous shrub with large heads of creamy white flowers resembling Hydrangea in Spring China 13.1900/1

Viburnum suspensum  East Border Gardens

Viburnum tinus   (laurustinus) An unspectacular, almost dreary shrub with pannicles of small white flowers from time to time.Mediterranean 1.1875 (Viburnum tinus), 1A.1885, 7.1897, 9.1851, 13.1900/1

Viburnum odoratissimum “emerald lustre” Tough upright large shrub glossy foliage, white flowers. This Viburnum responds well to pruning and may be a useful hedging plant. China  1.1875 (10 species Viburnum), 1A.1885 (V.odoratissimum), 7.1897, 13.1900/1

Wiegela florida Tall shrub or small tree, deciduous, covered in lovely pink flowers in early spring. May look untidy in autumn often holding dead leaves. Strikes easily from cutting. China Korea 7.1897 (W.amabilis, W.rosea, W.variegata), 9.1851 (W.rosea), 13.1900, 14.1868

Wiegela florida var. ‘Eva Rathke’  crimson to red flowering Weigela, deciduous. China Korea garden hybrids

Weigela florida alba   A white spring flowering Weigela . Deciduous. China

Weigela florida variegata                                      stone circle

Weigela foliis purpureus     Foliis Purpueis’ is a small, spreading deciduous shrub with ovate, dull purplish-green leaves and clusters of funnel-shaped, rosy-pink flowers paler within            Replaced  with 2 specimens fom ‘White House Nursery’ in 2016    stone circle and East border garden

Wrightia religiosa syn. Echites religiosa  Shrub to 3 meters, small pendant and fragrant white flowers. The genus was named for William Wright (1735-1819), Scottish physician and botanist, by Robert Brown and  first described as a genus in 1810       Thailand, Vietnam LOST 2016

GRASSES a few at “The Shambles” 2015

Described in early Queensland references and still well known 2.1883

Cynodon dactylon   (Couch grass)

Paspalum distichum (P.dilatatum)   Paspalum grass

Stenotaphrum americanum (S.secundatum)   Buffolo grass

Trifolium repens   (Dutch or white clover)

WEEDS , a small selection of,  2015

Araujia sericifera   (White moth vine) South America

Asparagus aethiopicus   (Asparagus fern) 1A.1885, 13.1900/1 South Africa.

Bidens pilosa   (Cobblers pegs) 1A.1885  Tropical America

Desmodium unicinatum   (silver leaf desmodium) South America

Drymaria cordata   (tropical chickweed) South America, Galapagos

Hypochaeris radicata   (flat weed, sometimes known as ‘dandelion’)

Lantana camara   1.1875, 1A.1885   South America

Ochna atropurpurea   1A.1885   South Africa

Oxalis corniculata   (creeping Oxalis) 13.1900/1  Europe

Ricinus communis   (Castor oil plant) 1A.1885

Solanum mauritianum   (Wild tobacco) South America

Tradescantia albiflora   (Wandering Jew) South America

Trifolium repens   (White Clover) Europe

Guilt Free Gardening with Exotica

Privet species and Camphor Laurel are mentioned elsewhere. In our garden donor plants such as Salvia coccinea and Ruellia spp may be regarded by others as weeds but we enjoy their fecundity. Some calvinistic Australian ‘indigenous plant only’ enthusiasts may regard this entire catalogue as one of weeds.

It is probably realistic to rely on the traditional definition of a weed as a plant which is growing “where it is not wanted”. This of course begs the questions: if not wanted, why? Where? and by whom?

If simply being from outside this continent makes a plant a weed then not only are all introduced ornamentals suspect but we must also condemn barley, wheat, rye, oats, millet, sorghum, rice, corn, sunflowers, canola, soy beans, cotton, sugar cane, pineapples, bananas, all citrus fruits (except finger lime), mangos, paw paw, avocado, all vegetables & pulses, passion fruit, kiwi fruit, hops, grapes, pasture grass and just about all means of sustaining life in Australia. Ipso facto the enormous catalogue of exotic ornamental plant material is an integral part of our urban and rural gardenscape and landscape. Just like the enormous catalogue of productive plants these exotic ornamentals mostly out perform indigenous species in the domestic role in which they are used and should be enjoyed, just like wheat bread, or wine, without any guilt.

 

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Welcome to our country Garden at Montville in Queensland