Inventory of Shrubs at “The Shambles” (Grasses and Weeds)

The Shambles Garden Shrub Inventory  2020

A garden inventory becomes a vital part of maintaining a large garden and is very interesting when the garden contains a collection of ‘old fashioned’ plants of many varieties not commercially available. Making, maintaining and publishing an inventory of garden plants is a curatorial task. It greatly enhances communication and is a tool for research.

please Scroll down the following lists of plants,

List is alphabetical according to Latin Binomial. There are Annotated 19th century references in red/blue with the key below. The grouping of plants is purely arbitary and a personal choice.


Grasses and Weeds at the very end

A foreword to our Inventory.

The inspiration for making garden inventories is unlike that for football card collecting or train spotting although it may require similar concentration and dedication. The variety and complexity of species in a domestic garden, or a public collection can increase over time and the gardener who wants to stay on top of this will acquire lots of gardening reference books and start to identify, catalogue and map plants and plant groups. Making and organizing one’s own catalogue increases the efficiency of garden care by identifying various plant groups horticultural needs, identifying successful varieties for further collection and helps with the sharing of ideas and enjoyment with others. Any plant inventory made today may become the scientific, historical and social research material of the future if steps are taken to disseminate the information and to preserve these lists.

As members of the Australian Garden History Society (Queensland) we have an interest in identifying not just important sites but also the great variety of plants relevant to the study of garden history. To that end we have trialed different versions of catalogues of our own garden plants in our first two books, “Over the Fence and Overlooked, Traditional Plants in Queensland’s Gardening Heritage”,2009. ISBN 978-1876344665 and “The Shambles, The Story of a Montville Garden”, 2007, ISBN 978-0980430400 and on our Website:

We were very fortunate to be able to study the plant ledgers compiled for the large ornamental and productive gardens and orchards of Talgai Homestead, from 1868 with notes up until the 1940s. The carefully numbered, dated and notated entries for each plant form an invaluable record of this historic garden thanks to the inventory created by Ellen and George Clark over 140 years ago.

In referring yet again to our modern living inventory as a basis for investigation of the heritage credentials of our common traditional garden plants, we recognize some advantages and obvious flaws in this type of descriptive and comparitive study. An advantage is that we have a broad collection of common warm climate and temperate plants, certainly enough to start this sort of enquiry. Also we are fortunate that some very thorough plant inventories were prepared in the nineteenth century and that these are available for study. Much material can be found through National Library linkage to other libraries particularly the State Library of Victoria through

We note some obvious limitations in generalization from our comparison of old and new plant inventories. Our plant collection contains no water plants such as water lilies or lotus, has comparatively few succulents & cacti and these were popular with gardeners in the past. Our plant collection is ornamental rather than productive and therefore the enormous range of productive trees, vines, fruit, vegetables and herbs known by former generations of gardeners is limited in our inventory.

Our stimulus to undertake this study was not being able to find a readable inventory which clearly and immediately offers the evidence of the bona fides of a plant which carry the “heritage” label in books and journals. The Historic houses trust NSW does publish the Colonial Plants Data base at which is an excellent resource but didn’t fulfill our requirement for comparison to Queensland resources. Our method of inventory cross referencing will no doubt be incomplete.  It is difficult to be confident about of the identity of some plants because of uncertainty with synonyms, idiosyncratic spelling, changed scientific and common names over time, the free use of ‘common names’ and the vast variety within some plant groups. The gardens of our forebears were not sepia tinted, transient or dull places. Notation in our modern Inventory will show evidence that 19th and early 20th century domestic gardens were filled with vibrant colour, perfume and enormous variety of hardy reliable plants.

Key for Notations: The Annotated References from Historical Sources.

“Catalogue of the Plants in the Queensland Botanic Gardens”,Walter Hill, Government Printer, Brisbane 1875.                            1. 1875

“Catalogue of Plants in the two Metropolitan Gardens, The Brisbane Botanic Garden and Bowen Park (The Garden of the Queensland Acclimatization Society)”,   Frederick Manson Bailey, Colonial Botanist, Government Printer, Brisbane 1885                                       1A. 1885

Designed Landscapes in Queensland, 1859-1939”,  Jean Sim, QUT, 1999, APPENDIX G, referred to the following plant lists:

“The Flower garden in Queensland, containing concise and practical instructions for the Cultivation of the flower garden. And the management of Pot Plants in Australia”, Albert Hockings, Slater & Co, Brisbane, 1875                                                                     2. 1875

“Cultural Industries in Queensland: Papers on the Cultivation of Useful Plants suited to the climate of Queensland:their value as food, in the arts, and in medicine; and methods of Obtaining their products”   Lewis Bernays, Government printer, Brisbane , 1883, (pp 201-207, The Shade of trees)                                                                     3. 1883

“Tree Planting for Shade and Ornament: Suggestions for teachers and others interested in the Planting of Trees”  Edward Shelton, Dept of Agriculture, Government Printer, Brisbane, Bulletin 17, 1892

List: Philip McMahon, Brisbane Botanic gardens Curator      4a  1892

Ebenezer Cowley, Overseer, State Nursery, Kamerunga 4b  1892

J S Edgar , Botanic gardens , Rockhampton                  4c   1892

William Soutter, Manager , Acclimatization society        4d   1892

“General Catalogue of Seeds, Plants, bulbs, Tubers, trees, Climbers, etc.”  Samuel Eaves, Howard, printer, Brisbane, 1897             5    1897

“Queenslander”  under ‘Horticulture’ section ‘Shrubs’, William Soutter, 18/12/1897 pp 1181                                                             6    1897

“General descriptive Catalogue for 1874, of Fruit trees, Shrubs, Ornamental and forest trees, Etc. etc”  Charles Wyatt, Frogmore Nursery, Geelong 1874                                                           7    1874

“1896 Catalogue of Flower roots”.  Law, Somner & Co., Melbourne, 1896                                                                                      8   1896

“Catalogue of Plants for Sale by Michael Guilfoyle”   Exotic Nursery, Double bay, Sydney 1851                                                       9   1851

Catalogue of Plants for Sale at the Victoria Nursery, Richmond”  George Brunning, Melbourne, 1855                                                  10  1855

“Report on the Progress and Condition of the Botanic Garden and Government Plantations, 1873”, R.Schomburgk, W.C.Cox: Government Printer, Adelaide, 1874                                                          11  1874

“Botanic Gardens, Brisbane, Catalogue of Plants 1962”, Brisbane city Council, Brisbane, 1962                                                        12  1962

“Federation Gardens: Plant lists, Compiled from Searl & Sons General Catalogue 1901, Seeds, Plants & Bulbs for Sydney; Pearce Bros.Descriptive Catalogue and Guide 1900; Robert Little & Co’s Catalogue of Flower seeds Sydney 1900: Rumsey’s 1882 Catalogue (Roses) Sydney 1882                    13 1900/1

“Talgai Homestead, Plant Ledger, commenced 1868-1907 Ellen and George Clark. Additions after 1907-1942 George Carr Clark, 1945-1965 Bardwell” 14 1868- 1940S  to 1965 Bardwell”                                                                                                                                                             14. 1868                                       ,Hortus camdenensis: an illustrated catalogue of plants collected by Sir William Macarthur at Camden Park, NSW, Australia between about c.1820 & 1861 / by Colin Mills     15. Camden

“The Garden Plants of China” Peter Valder, Florilegium, Sydney 1999      16. China


In the 19th Century Botanic Gardens supplied Government agencies and others with plant material and Schomburgk in Adelaide reports his dispersement of 10,380 trees and shrubs in 1873-4 11.1874. Regarding the exchange of plant material with Australia’s new colonies Schomburgk in Adelaide describes the sources of his “Valuable gifts” as Dr Hooker, Kew, in London; Dr Scheffer, Buitenzorg, Java; Dr Regel, Imperial Botanic Garden, St.Petersburg; Dr Moore, Dublin; Dr Pasquale, Naples; and the Garden Directors at Capetown and Auckland. He also listed the Consul-General Alexandria in Egypt; Department of Agriculture, United States of America and the Directors of the Botanic Gardens in Sydney, Brisbane and Melbourne, then a list of Nurseries in Britain, France and Australia (including Queensland)  11.1874.

Walter Hills extensive and detailed Catalogue of the Queensland Botanic Garden of 1875 demonstrates the abundance drawn together by early garden directors and domestic gardeners in the first century of European settlement in Australia. 1.1875 An excellent illustration of this can be found in one of our favourite books, “Grandfather grew Mangel-Wurzels” by Janet Hauser which has a plant association of each of many localities in the Beaudesert area of South East Qld

Shrubs “The Shambles”   2015

Ornamental garden shrubs have presumed to be the chief topic of conversation, the focus of design and the plants which create the gardeners ‘piece de resistance’ in many cases. For collectors some types of shrub have created fascination and even obsession. ‘Old Fashioned’ or traditional may be accurate labels for many of the plants from our collection and long lived garden survivor shrubs were the inspiration for our own garden development. These plants are often hybridized and eponymously named and therefore benefit from being identified and records maintained by the gardener over time.

Abelia grandifolia, A. grandiflora Var. ‘Francis Mason’. A beautiful and tough lax shrub, Easy to strike from cutting. Small white pendulous flowers in summer China.  1.1875 (3 species), 1A.1885 (A.rupestrus, A.uniflora), 7.1897 (A.uniflora) Central Shrub garden

Abelia grandiflora variegata   “Variegated Abelia”. It has a natural rounded habit and produces masses of small white flowers in Spring, Summer and Autumn. The leaves are green and broadly edged with white with new pink growth.  Stone Circle Garden, central shrub garden

Abelia grandiflora “Kaleidoscope”                      central shrub garden

Abelia schumannii syn.Abelia longituba syn. A. parvifolia. Arching evergreen shrub. Pink flowering in summer . Genus named after British consul general in China 1817 – Dr Clarke Abel.

Abutilon (17species) described in Brisbane Botanic Gardens 1875 incl A.striatum,A.bedfordianum, A.venosum, A.vtaefolium.1.1875,Abutilons also in ref  6.1897,  7.1897, 9.1851( A.venosum,A.richardii, A.devonianum, A.striatum, A.nitidifolium, A.bedfordianum)

Abutilon x hybridum  (bell flower) var. ‘Orange Cascade’,“Golden Fleece’, ‘Nabob’ (red), ‘Canary bird’ and ‘Cerise Queen’ with orange, yellow, red, yellow, pink and also white flowers in our garden. These are evergreen, summer flowering and very tolerant of dry shade and require pruning to shape. Other hybrids including ‘Bella select’ suntense, pictum types are collected. Breeding perhaps as follows.

Abutilon. X hybridum  A group of hybrids between A. darwinii and  A. striatum. All have softly hairy, lobed leaves and bell-shaped flowers with incurving petals.

  1. megapotamicum Native to southern Brazil and Uruguay, where it grows to 8’. Flowers are small, yellow, and pendant, with a large red calyx. X milleri long, narrow leaves and pale orange flowers with red calyces.
  2. Native to Brazil. Leaves toothed and 3, 5, or 7 lobed. Similar to a Japanese maple. Flowers have protruding stamens, with orange-yellow petals that are veined with dark crimson.
  3. x suntense – A cross between to native Chilean species, A. vitifolium and A. ochsenii. It is a medium shrub with mauve or white flowers.
  4. venosum – Native to Brazil, with 5-7 lobed leaves like a Japanese maple. Flowers are orange-yellow and veined with brown.

Abutilon x hybridum   (double pink bell flower). Double pink, almost peonie form flower on standard Abutilon shrub. Garden hybrid  1A.1885 (Abutilon ‘Chinese Lantern’ (20 different species and varieties)

Abutilon x hybridum variegatum  ‘Souvenir de Bonn’ (variegated leaf bell blower). Pretty variegated foliage, an unspectacular dull orange/pink flower.Garden hybrid

Abutilon megapotamicum variegatum.    Small pendulous yelloy/red flowers with black stamens, on low growing untidy shrub with variegated leaves. Very reliable in dry shade. Garden hybrid

Abutilon magapotamicam   var ‘Red Goblin’ and standard orange varieties. Fairly tall, lax shrub, evergreen, flowers continually in dry shade. Sun tolerant garden hybrid.

Abutilon megapotamicum ‘Variegatum’ (Variegated Brazilian Bell Flower) soft yellow spotting on green leaf background, open light orange flower. garden hybrid . Near back stairs

 Acalypha wilkesiana var.“firestorm” Always reliable in subtropical conditions as a colourful variegated foliage plant for hedging and background. Fiji, Pacific Islands 1.1875 (3 spp), 1A.1885 (copper leaf), 6.1897,  13.1900/1

Allamanda cathartica cv ‘Golden Butterfly’ growth habit is bushy and contained. Bright yellow trumpet like flowers from early spring to late autumn. The genus name Allamanda honors the Swiss botanist and physician Frédéric-Louis Allamand. Brazil  NW corner garden

Alternanthera dentata, Alternanthera   var “Island Sunset”. Tough low growing shrub with striking dark burgundy/red foliage, self seeds, responds to pruning. Will grow in sun or shade. Central and South America 1.1875, 1A.1885 (5 spp), 5.1897 Front Path

Alternanthera ficioides green and gold groundcover

Anisodontea capensis syn.Sphaeralcea capensis (Marsh Mallow or Hairy Mallow) Fine stemmed evergreen shrub. Pink to apricot flowers in summer South Africa NE corner

Azalea  (Rhododendron indica, R.kurume). Once established these traditional slow growing shrubs will survive for decades rewarding with a display of spring flowers which cover each bush. Foliage is prone to mite damage. In our own garden many plants were lost in their early stage if the roots dried out in drought. Also the identification of some of our own hybrids is lost. 1.1875 (11 varieties incl. exquista, splendens, 4 other species), 1A.1885 (19 varieties incl. exquisite), 9.1851 (exquisite, purpurea), 10.1855, 13.1900/1 (73 var.) Most are in beds South and East of the House, together with Vireyas and Pieris

Our named ‘sun hardy’ Azaleas include

‘Alphonse Anderson’  below North verandah

“Alba Magnifica”  SE corner House

“Magnifica” (mauve) 2.1875  Facing south Rose garden, East Border                                                                   Garden, Driveway

“Elizabeth Lawrence” (Pink) East Border Garden

“Exquisite” (pink) Facing South Rose garden

“Kirin” (pink)  East Border garden

“Coral wings” (pink) Facing South Rose garden

“Dr Arnold” (Pink) Facing South Rose garden

“Red wing” (crimson/red) East Border garden

“Fielders White” (white) East Border garden,

“Firelight” (crimson red) Facing South Rose garden

“Rosa Belton”  (white/pink)

“Anna Kehr” (white/pink)

“Mrs Kint”

Azaleas from temperate Asia, garden hybrids “Southern indica” refers to sun tolerant Azaleas as will grow in southern USA. Rhododendron species introduced to Europe during late 18th century to mid 19th century period, and in Australia from that time.

Barleria cristata. Barleria var. “jet streak”, var. “purple dazzler” (Phillipine violet). Tough attractive shrub, Mauve flowers, ‘jet streak’ flowers streaked mauve and white. Strikes easily from cutting, tolerates sun and dry shade. Southern Asia  1.1875 (4 spp incl. B.cristata), 1A.1885, 7.1897. Driveway, Stone Circle, NE Corner gardens

Barleria obtusa ‘Purple Gem’ Bush violet, ‘Purple Gem’ is a decorative foliage plant with purple flowers appearing during the warmer months of the year. occurs naturally along forest margins in the summer rainfall region of South Africa. It is widely cultivated as a decorative garden shrub. In tropical Africa, the leaves are cooked as a vegetable, and the plant is used medicinally Below North Verandah

Barleria repens   var. ‘orange bugle’ (coral creeper) trailing plant or ground cover with orange flowers. May climb through other shrubs to spread over some distance. South Africa East Border Garden

Bauhinia corymbosa syn. Phanera corymbosa  Evergreen semi-climber. Small green bilobed leaves on reddish hairy stems. Loose clusters of pink orchid-like flowers in spring and autumn. Useful for a trellis where its fine texture can be admired. Prefers a sunny protected position and well drained soil. Frost and drought sensitive. ” Bauhinia ” was a name given this genus by Linnaeus to honor the twin brothers Johann and Gaspard Bauhin, who were 16th century Swiss scientists – Johann was a botanist and Gaspard a botanist and physician.  Can be spectacular cover over a fence or embankment. South East Asia ?1.1875 (9 species Bauhinea), 1A.1885 (Bauhinia corymbosa). North Pool fence ,embankment

Bauhinia tomentosa Medium to large shrub to a small tree, up to 4m in height. Leaves are divided into two lobes, light green in colour, with a leathery texture, carried on branches that are often drooping. It produces large bell-shaped, bright yellow flowers with a black to deep maroon coloured centre from December to March. The fruit are pea like, slender and velvety. They are light green, turning a pale brown with age and are produced from January to June or even later. Bark is grey or brown. Yellow Bauhinia is native to tropical Africa and can be found as far as India and Sri Lanka. South Rose Garden, NW Corner garden

Brugmansia Linnaeus first classified these plants as part of Datura with his 1753 description of Datura arborea. Then in 1805, C. H. Persoon transferred them into a separate genus, Brugmansia, named for Dutch naturalist Sebald Justinus Brugmans. For another 168 years, various authors placed them back and forth between the genera of Brugmansia and Datura, until in 1973, with his detailed comparison of morphological differences, T.E. Lockwood settled them as separate genera, where they have stayed unchallenged since. Brugmansia found in the following Australian references:   1.1875 (4 species), 1A.1885 (B.suaveolens, knightii,sanguinea),   6.1897,7.1897 (B.arborea), 9.1851 (B.arborea white, B.bicolor, B.knightii double white), 10.1855 (B.arborea)

Brugmansia x candida  aurea (yellow angels trumpet). Tall growing, brittle stemmed untidy shrub with large spectacular yellow trumpet shaped flowers. All parts of the plant are poisonous, grows easily from cutting. South America

Brugmansia candida (aurea x versicolor) rosea.   Tall brittle shrub or small tree (pink angels trumpet). All Brugmansias are poisonous containing alkaloids hyoscyamine, scopolamine and atropine like activity.  South America

Brugmansia versicolor is a shrub or small tree reaching 3.0–4.9 m (10–16 ft) in height. It has an alternate insertion of elliptic/oblong leaves that are entire with smooth edges. One of the most prominent characteristics of B. versicolor is the presence of giant drooping flowers which hang upside down, which is where it gets its common name of Angel’s Trumpet. The flowers are the largest of all Brugmansia at 300–510 mm (12–20 in) in length. They open first white, but then may age to turn peach, pink, apricot or remain white., Brugmansia versicolor is exceptionally poisonous if ingested in large quantities. It contains various alkaloids that have toxic properties which affect the mind and body. Some of these alkaloids include atropinescopolamine, and hyoscyamine. No matter if swallowed or inhaled, the flowers, leaves, and seeds of Brugmansia will most likely cause symptoms of hallucinations, dry mouth, muscle weakness, increased blood pressure, increased pulse, fever, dilated pupils, and paralysis.  South America. South Rose Garden

Brugmansia aurea culebra   (Handkerchief Brugmansia), long thin leaves with pendulous white flowers on a rare variety of Angels Trumpet. South America

Brunfelsia americana. Yellow/white tubular Flowers forming medium sized shrub. Flowers change from one colour to the other and carry both at the same time. Central and South America 1.1875, 1A.1885

Brunfelsia latifolia syn Francisia latifolia. (‘yesterday, today and tomorrow’) Spectacular as mauve tubular flowers change to white, with both carried at the same time in spring , spot flowering at other times. Perfumed, forms a large shrub, may be used for hedging. Central and South America) 1.1875 (Francisia latifolia), 1A.1885, 6.1897, 9.1851

Brunfelsia latifolia variegata . Variegated form with the same tubular flowers changing from mauve to white. Fenced Rose garden

 Brunfelsia pauciflora syn. Brunfelsia eximiaBrunfelsia pauciflora is a species of flowering plant in the family Solanaceae, the nightshades. It is endemic to Brazil, and it is grown in cultivation. Its common names include yesterday-today-and-tomorrow, morning-noon-and-night, Kiss Me Quick, and Brazil raintree. Larger tubular flowers in mauve, then white and larger leaves than B.latifolia,  without perfume. Brazil  1.1875 (Francisia excimia), 1A.1885

Brunfelsia lactea.  Lady of the night. Shrub with vanilla coloured blooms that are very fragrant at night. Flowers tend to be larger and more prolific than Brunfelsia nitida. Blooms in light shade like most Brunfelsias. Fruit has a round capsule containing many seeds. . All parts of a plant are toxic, especially roots and fruits, to a lesser degree leaves. White tubular flowers, not yellow as the name suggests with striking almost black new foliage. Puerto Rico  1.1875 (Francisia uniflora), 1A.1885 (B.uniflora), 10.1855 (F.uniflora)

Buddleja found in the following references:1.1875 (6 species), 1A.1885 (lindleyana, madagascariensis, saligna), 9.1851 (B heterophylla, B.hybrida 2 types, B.paniculata)

Budleja colvilei Himalayan Butterfly Bush. the largest flowered of all the Buddlejas  in pink tones. It flowers on wood from the previous seasons growth. Besides dead heading it needs no attention. It is endemic to the eastern Himalaya; discovered by Hooker in 1849, he declared it ‘the handsomest of all Himalayan shrubs.’ In 1896 the species was awarded the RHS First Class Certificate, given to plants ‘of outstanding excellence for exhibition’. Himilaya  Central Shrub Garden

Buddleja davidii (spelling variant Buddleia davidii), also called summer lilac, butterfly-bush, or orange eye, is a species of flowering plant in the family Scrophulariaceaenative to Sichuan and Hubei provinces in central China, and also Japan. It is widely used as an ornamental plant, and many named varieties are in cultivation. B. davidii is named for the Basque missionary and explorer in China, Father Armand David, who was the first European to report the shrub. It was found near Ichang by Dr Augustine Henry about 1887 and sent to St Petersburg. Another botanist-missionary in China, Jean-André Soulié, sent seed to the French nursery Vilmorin, and B. davidii entered commerce in the 1890s. White, traditional mauve, purple hybrids are available.  Beautiful terminal clusters of tiny tubular flowers which have a heavy perfume. The shrubs can become tall lax and untidy. Easily struck from cutting. China. Throughout the garden.

Buddleja davidii ‘Black Knight’ has been one of the most successful davidii cultivars ever released. A selection made by Ruys at the Moerheim Nursery, Dedemsvaart, Netherlands, circa 1959, it was accorded the RHS Award of Garden Merit in 1993. Central Lawn and Border Garden

Buddleja lindleyana   a deciduous shrub native to the provinces of Anhwei, Hunan, Hupeh, Kiangsu, Shanghai, Sichuan, and Yunnan in China, where it grows in rocky scrub alongside streams and tracks at elevations of 200 – 2700 m. The shrub has also naturalized on   Okinawa-jima, Japan, and in the south-eastern states of the USA.   B. lindleyana was collected and introduced to western cultivation in 1843 by Robert Fortune, who named it for the botanist John Lindley   Criss Cross Garden

Buddleja ‘Wattlebird’ ishybrid cultivar of Buddleja madagascariensis × Buddleja asiatica raised by R J Cherry in Australia in 1993. Buddleja ‘Wattlebird’ is a lax, spreading shrub growing to a height and spread of 3.6 m × 2.7 m.[2] The inflorescences comprise long, slender panicles of very fragrant creamy white to orange yellow flowers which persist from midsummer to mid-autumn. The leaves are mid-green above, and grey tomentose below. A tall grey Buddleja with long racemes of yellow flowers. Garden hybrid. East Border Garden.

Buddleja salviifolia, common names Sage Bush and Sagewood, is endemic to much of southern and eastern Africa, from Kenya and Angola south, where it grows on rocky hillsides, along forest margins and watercourses. The species was described and named by Lamarck in 1792 Buddleja salviifolia is a large, semi-evergreen shrub, multi-stemmed, with untidy, drooping branches, typically reaching a height of 4 – 8  m. Lovely large shrub or brittle small tree. Strongly perfumed grey/blue flower spikes in spring. This is an outstanding old fashioned Buddleja. 1.1875, 7.1897 (B.salicifolia), 9.1851, 14.1868. North Lawn

 Camellia sasanqua.   A list of named varieties at “the Shambles’ is as follows. Most are modern hybrids. Autumn winter flowering, Japan-garden hybrids. See Queensland Camellia Society The study of European and therefore Australian garden fashion in Camellias is one of ebb and flow. Camellias were made popular again by the work of Professor Waterhouse at ‘Erydene’ in Sydney from the 1930s. 1.1875 (1 sasanqua, 1 reticulata), 9.1851

The Shambles list of Sasanqua hybrids:

“Queenslander” (pale pink) East Border Garden

“Bonanza” (red) East Border garden

“Beatrice Emily” (pale pink) Driveway Garden

“Donna Herziliade Freitas Magalhaes” (Mauve double) East Border and Stone Circle x 2

“Hiryu” (bright pink) East Border and Driveway x 6

“Scentsation” (demi-tasse, hybrid white/pink with faint perfume) NE corden

“Plantation pink” (pale pink) East Border and Driveway x 2

“Showa-no sakae” (double white, mauve border) Driveway

“Yuletide” (single red) South Rose garden

“Edna Butler” (single pale pink) East Border

“Dazzler” (crimson pink) East Border

“Red Willow” (single crimson/pink) East Border

“Setsugekka” (white semidouble) West of Pool, NE corner  x2

“Vanity Fair” (crimson pink). east Border Garden

“Cherilyn” (crimson pink) East Border garden

“Mignonne” (small double pink flowers) West of Pool

“Paradise Pearl”     White/pink  East Border

“Paradise Sarah”    White   East Border

“Paradise Venessa”   White  East Border

Camellia x  vernalis   “Star above Star” (white/pink) East Border, West of House x 3

Camellia rusticana x C lutchuenensis “Fragrant Pink”  x 2   East Border

Camellia japonica  Winter flowering. China, Korea, Japan.  1.1875 (26 varieties incl ‘Aspasia’), 2.1875 1A.1885 (27 varieties), 7.1897 (45 varieties incl.’Aspasia’), 9.1851 (37 varieties), 10.1855 (35 varieties)

A list of Japonicas at ‘The Shambles’

‘Prince Fredick William” (Formal pink double) West end front verandah

“Blood of China” (Crimson red double) East Border garden x 2

“Grape Soda” (mauve-red) East Border garden

“Paolina Maggi” (white) East Border Garden

“Commander Mullroy” (formal double white) central shrub garden

“Brushfield Yellow” (double cream to yellow) East Border garden

“Takanini” (double red) stone circle

“Kamo-Hon Ami” (single white) East Border garden

“Tama-no-yura” (red with white border) South Rose garden

“Emperor of Russia” variegated (red/white) West of House, East Border x 2

“William Bull” variegated (pink/white) West of house

“R L Wheeler” variegated (red/white double) West of House

“Aspasia MacArthur” small tree with streaked pink/white double Flower. west of house


Camellia lutchuensis x japonica ‘Tinsie’ (pink)  East Border Garden

Species Camellias.

Camellia chinensis.  A robust shrub ,single white flowers, the Tea plant of china, known to Europeans since the 18th Century. Once no longer under Chinese control colonial powers introduced C.chinensis in India, Ceylon and southern Asia to establish tea plantations. China  1.1875 (Thea bohea 3 varieties), 1A.1885 (Thea, Thea assamica), 7.1897 (T.bohea), 9.1851 (T.viridis), 13.1900/1 SE Corner

Camellia chinensis rosea.   Pink flowering tea plant with darker new foliage. China, hybrid East Border garden x 2

Camellia crapnelliana, Vigorous tall growing shrub, slow to produce but has flowered in our climate. Discovered in the 1950s Hong Kong SE Corner, Driveway

Camellia grijsii .Vigourous shrub with attractive glossy foliage, generous small, single, white flowers China SE Corner

Camellia lutchuensis.   Vigorous tall, arching shrub with tiny white perfumed flowers tinged with pink South East China East Border Garden

Camellia rosiflora small pink rose like flowers, compact shrub Southern Asia. Front Path Garden

Camellia nitidissima chrysora.   Vigorous shrub with yellow flowers in autumn. Of interest as Camellias in general only produce flowers in the white through to red range. Southern China, North Vietnam East Border Garden

Calliandra haematocephela (pink) Tough self seeding shrub producing pink powderfuff like flowers in summer. Caribbean, South America 1A.1885 East Border Garden

Calliandra portoricencis (white) Tall growing Calliandra with white powderfuff like flowers at the end of the day in summer. Caribbean, South America South Rose garden

Callicarpa bodinieri var. giraldii ,Callicarpa bodinieri (Bodinier’s beautyberry). Growing to 3 m (10 ft) tall by 2.5 m (8 ft) wide, it is an upright deciduous shrub with dark green leaves turning red in autumn. In midsummer, small lilac flowers are produced in the leaf axils. But it is grown in gardens primarily for its small, decorative purple berries in tight clusters in autumn The Latin specific epithet bodinieri refers to Émile-Marie Bodinier, a French missionary and botanist of the 19th century, who collected plants in China. Sprawling lax shrub which produces tiny pink flowers in summer, then most notably shiny purple berry clusters. China  1.1875 (C.purpurea and 4 other spp), 1A.1885 (pedunculata, cana ), 9.1851 (C.cana-dentata) Central Shrub Garden

Callicarpa dichotoma  ?  Callicarpa cana (White Beauty Berry) China Fenced Rose garden

Centradenia grandiflora fantastic cover for embankments. Crimson/purple flowers, can be vulnerable to dry but reliable once established. Mexico Front Embankment

Cestrum nocturnum  (Night Scented Jessamine) An upright shrub or small tree up to 4m high, its young twigs are sparsely finely hairy; the undersurface of the leaf midrib is finely hairy; the leaves have an unpleasant odour when crushed. Flowers are greenish white to cream coloured and are produced in terminal panicles or clusters; the flowers are very strongly perfumed (said to resemble the aroma of “sweet custard powder”) and the perfume is released during the hours of early evening and then into the night. The fruits are long oval to globular berries that are at first green but then become white. Mexico, Central America  North Border

 Cestrum purpurea syn.  C elegans, C panniculatum. Introduced to UK in 1840 and in Curtis illustrated magazine 1867, tough, tall dense clump forming shrub which produces tubular purple flowers at the end of stems n summer and autumn. Crushed foliage has odour. There are a number of Cestrum species available as garden specimens Mexico 1,1875 (6 species), 1A.1885 (5 species), 7.1897 (3 species)

Chaenomeles speciose, Japonica speciosa (Chinese Flowering Quince; syn.: Chaenomeles laganariaCydonia lagenariaCydonia speciosaPyrus japonica) Ornamental shrub with hard green apple-shaped fruit 5–6 cm diameter. The flowers are shades of red, white, or flecked with red and white. The leaves are 4–7 cm long.  Genus name comes from the Greek words chaino meaning to gape and melon meaning an apple in the incorrect belief that the fruits split open. We have var. ‘Apple Blossom’,var. ‘simmonii’ (deep red). Deciduous, thorny ornamental quince shrub, spring flowering. China Fenced Rose Garden South Rose garden

Clerodendrum (Clerodendron):   1.1875 (5 species), 1A.1885 (10spp cunninghamii, fallax, floribunda, fragrans, inerme, nutans, rumphiana, splendens, thompsonae, tomentosa),   5.1897 (Bushy Clerodendron), 6.1897,   9.1851 (8 species)   13.1900/1

Clerodendrum chinense is an erect, evergreen shrub with stout branches, it grows up to 2 metres tall. The plant spreads freely by means of suckers southern China, Nepal, northeast India, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines In Hawaii, C. chinense was first collected in 1864-1865. China. NE of verandah

Clerodendrum bungei .Beautiful pink hydrangea like flower heads, summer and autumn on an invasive spreading shrub. Crushed foliage smells like burnt oil. Does not tolerate drying out. Dormant in winter or in dry weather China West of Fenced Rose Garden

Clerodendrum nutans syn c.wallichii  Attractive small shrub growing to about 1 – 2 metres in height. This tropical plant coms from NE India and has shiny dark green quilted lanceolate leaves and showy clusters of pendulous creamy white flowers with long stamens Clerodendrum wallichii was described by Elmer Drew Merrill. Pendulous white flowers on a sparse upright arching shrub. The flowers while small are quite beautiful in complexity. Dormant in winter or in dry weather. India, SE Asia. 1.1875, 1A.1885,  6.1897, 9.1851. Stone circle garden, Blue Trellis Garden

Clerodendrum ugandense syn. C.myricoides (blue butterfly bush) beautiful pale blue butterfly shaped flowers on a tall lax shrub. Also a Mauve flowering form  Kenya, Uganda. Central Shrub Garden, Front Path Garden

Clerodendrum speciocissimum.  (pink/mauve bleeding heart) Twining shrub, climber with pink/mauve flowers/bracts.Tropical Africa, Java  1A.1885 (Clerodendron fallax). Pool Yard

Coffee arabica is originally from Yemen on the Arabian peninsula, Arabica is thought to be the first species of coffee to be cultivated and many consider it to be a superior coffee type.The earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking appears in the middle of the 15th century in the Sufi shrines of Yemen. Coffee Trees are attractive with dark glossy leaves and striking red berries.  They take around seven years to mature and grow to about 5 metres but can be trimmed to two metres for easier harvest.  Coffee is relatively pest free and will grow well in rich or improved soils. Small white flowers appear two to four years after planting and produce a Jasmine-like fragrance. The flowers only last a few days then the green berries begin to appear, ripening and deepening to a bright red. Coffee grows best in semi-shade between around 15-25C. Western hedge, NW corner

Convolvulus cneorum (Silver Bush0  an evergreen shrub rather than a vine, forming a low mound 0.6–1.2 m (2 ft 0 in–3 ft 11 in) in height, with a similar spread. It produces 2.5–4 cm (1–2 in) diameter flowers which are white with a yellow throat. Mediterranean NW Corner

Cotoneaster serotinus, syn C glaucophyllus  var serotinus. George Forrest (1873-1932) first collected in the Yunnan province the worthwhile evergreen variety, C. serotinus, in 1907. A stiff branched evergreen shrub or small tree with an open habit and arching branches. It has rich dark green, round-tipped leaves with prominent veins and white star shaped flowers appear throughout the plant in spring. The flowers are followed by solitary red-orange berries that grow profusely along the branches in summer, lasting into winter. It is a very tough plant  North East Border Garden  Southern China and Vietnam   Hortus Camdenensis

Cuphea compacta   established as an edging plant throughout the garden. Low growing, mauve flowers, self seeds. Mexico  1A.1885 (C.jorullensis?), 9.1851, 10. 1855 (4 species Cuphea) Central Lawn Borders

Cuphea ignea (cigarette bush) Tough low shrub with crimson/red tubular flowers Mexico 1A.1885, 9.1851 (C.platycentra),10.1855 (C.platycentra),7.1897 (2 species), 6.1897 ,13.1900/1 Fenced Rose garden, North Rose garden

Cuphea salvadorensis   (Christmas Cigar Flower) Mexico, El Salvador

Cytisus racemosus nana is commonly called the Dwarf Yellow Broom. Masses of yellow flowers from spring into summer will almost cover the plant. This is a great landscaping plant for tough dry conditions. It is regarded as being drought tolerant and has a fairly fast growth rate West Asia, North Africa NW Corner gartden

Deutzia gracilis variegata  This erect and bushy deutzia has masses of fragrant white flowers in upright clusters for weeks in spring and early summer.   Height to 1.5m. Width 1m. Full sun to part shade. Beautiful fragrance, deciduous, frost tolerant and drought resistant.   Deutzia is named after the 18th century Dutch patron of botany, Johann van der Deutz.   Central Shrub Garden

Deutzia gracilis   Lax arching low deciduous shrub with pink flowers appearing along stems. Japan 1.1875 (3 deutzia species), 1A.1885 (3 species crenata, gracilis, scabra), 6.1897, 7.1897, 9.1851 Central Shrub Garden, South Rose garden

 Dianthera nodosa syn. Justicia nodosa compact shrub from Brazil It has unusual yet beautiful frilled pink flowers in the warmer months. Suitable for full sun or semi shaded position. Beautiful arching shrub with pink flowers. Easily struck from cutting. Brazil. Central Shrub Garden, NE Corner gardens

 Dombeya tiliacea named after a French botanist Joseph Dombey who collected plants in South America. Dombeya tiliacea  is a mallow plant species first described by Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher. It has Abutilon like (maple like) large leaves, single white pendulous flowers, upright shrub. Very vigourous Africa  1.1875 (D.tiliafolia), 1A.1885 (5 species), 6.1897 (D.floribunda) Stone Circle Garden

Dombeya calanthe syn. Dombeya burgessiae is a widespread and variable species growing from KwaZulu- Natal northwards to Tanzania. It occurs naturally on forest margins, hillsides and slopes and along stream banks. Aside from its use in horticulture, this plant is apparently enjoyed by black rhinos who reportedly eat both bark and leaves (Palmer & Pitman 1973, Trees of Southern Africa.). Tall shrub pink flowering , maple shaped leaves, flowers in clusters South East Africa  Stone Circle Garden

 Duranta Lorentzii (Vanilla scented Duranta) syn.  Duranta serratifolia lush lime green evergreen shrub! The sparkling white blooms smell of sweet vanilla and so attractive to bees and butterflies. Duranta serratifolia was already described and the name validly published by August Heinrich Rudolf Grisebach. It was Carl Ernst Otto Kuntze, however, who reclassified it into todays valid botanical systematics in 1898.Duranta serratifolia is native to Argentina. Fenced Rose garden

Duranta repens. D.repens var. “Geisha girl”, “Sheenas gold”.  Most of our specicems make up the large and quite old southern hedge between the garden and the road. In spite of improvement in popular named varieties these large vigourous shrubs can dominate and become invasive in a warm climate. Caribbean, Central America  1.1875 (D.plumieri), 1A.1885 (plumierii, baumgartii), 2.1875, 5.1897, 7.1897 (D.plumneri), 9.1851. Front Embankment, Fenced Rose garden, Central Shrub Garden

 Echium candicans   Moderate sized biennial with grey foliage and tall spikes of blue flowers. Spring-summer flowering Canary Islands  9.1851 (E.fruticosum) Pool Embankment

Eranthemum pulchellum. Lovely sky blue single flowers for a short time in spring. An unspectacular low growing shrub for the rest of the year. India 1.1875 (13 species Eranthemum), 1A.1885 East Border Garden

Escallonia macarantha (pink) Beautiful foliage of shiny small ovate leaves, sprawling shrub. Bright crimson flowers in summer on ours but other varieties available. South America  7.1897 (4 species), 1A.1885 (macrantha, montevidensis, rubra),   9.1851 (4 species),10.1855 (E.rubra)

Eupatorium megalophyllum syn. Bartlettina sordida (blue mist flower) Tall growing shrub, large velvety leaves and heads of blue flowers in spring. Easily struck from cutting Mexico  1A.1885 (2 species),7.1897 (E.riparium) NW corner, Central Shrub Garden

Euphorbia cotinifolia   Along with Alternanthera these deciduous upright shrubs give burgundy/ red foliage accent in the warm climate garden. Easily struck from cutting. Has irritant latex if cut. Africa. Central shrub garden, East Border Garden

 Euphorbia leucocephalum (snow flake) spectacular white flower bracts ,then goes bare in spring, before new leaves appear. Africa. North West Corner

 Euphorbia hypericifolia “Diamond Frost” grows to a 50cm cushion and is spangled almost all year round with tiny, white flowers. Africa  . SE Stone Circle garden

Euphorbia milii   Low growing shrub with sharp thorns along vertical angular stems. Irritant latex, terminal coloured bracts. Potted, front verandah entrance. Madagascar 1.1875. 1A.1885 (E.bojeri) 1A.1885 Brisbane lists Euphorbia andrinoides, australia, bojeri, canariensis, fulgens, neriifolia, peplus, pilulifera, pulcherrima.

 Euphorbia pulcherrima (Poinsettia) A common garden shrub , tall growing with brightly coloured bracts of red (most famously), pink or cream. Irritant latex. Deciduous. Mexico  1.1875, 1A.1885, 7.1897 (E.splendens), 9.1851 (Poinsettia pulcherima), 14.1868 (Poinsettia) Central Shrub Garden

Ervatamia coronarium  syn. Tabernaemontana divaricata (carnation of India) evergreen shrub with fragrant white flowers. India, cultivated in Pakistan 1A.1885 (Tabernaemontana coronaria), 13.1900/1 Central Shrub Garden.

Excoecaria cochinchinensis var. ‘Garden Clown’ Chinese Croton This plant has pairs of beautiful shiny leaves which are deep green on top and a brilliant laquered red beneath. It has arching woody stems. An ideal shady garden plant that will add extra colour in shaded area. It grows to 1.5 metres in height. It prefers light shade with filtered sun and requires very little attention apart from regular watering. Like many spurges, sap is toxic, and thus called “Blindness Tree” in Southeast AsiaIn the same genus as the Milky mangrove,1A.1885 Central Lawn Borders, West of Fenced Rose Garden

Exochorda x macarantha “the bride” (Pearl Bush) Out of  zone but able to establish in our subtropical climate , beautiful white flowers on a lax shrub. Garden hybrid- East Asia  (syn.Spiraea grandiflora) Central Shrub garden

Forsythia intermedia  “Lynwood Gold” A deciduous shrub, with golden yellow flowers. The flowers are produced in the early spring before the leaves, bright yellow with a deeply four-lobed flower, the petals joined only at the base. These become pendant in rainy weather thus shielding the reproductive parts.  The genus is named after William Forsyth (1737–1804), a Scottish botanist who was royal head gardener and a founding member of the Royal Horticultural Society      China Pool Embankment x 2

 Fuchsia arborescens  (Lilac Fuchsia, Tree Fuchsia) Mid sized shrub with tiny pink to mauve flowers in clusters. Tropical Americas, Mexico Fenced Rose garden, Central Lawn Borders

Fuchsia boliviana is a species of Fuchsia native to southern PeruBolivia and northern Argentina. It is a medium evergreen shrub, growing to 2–4 m tall, rarely to 6 m, with a spreading, open habit. It has large, hairy mid-green leaves and red petioles. It has large drooping corymbs up to 20 cm long borne in late summer and autumn of scarlet red flowers with the individual flowers 3–7 cm long. A white-flowering form exists named ‘Alba’, with a white tube and scarlet petals.[2] After flowering it bears small red-purple, edible fruit 10–26 mm long.[3][4]Fuchsia boliviana is widely grown in shade or part-shade in cooler, subtropical climates. Plants require protection from direct sun and temperatures exceeding 40 °C. The plants are hardy to about -4 °C for short periods. Propagation is by seed or cuttings. East border Garden.

Fuchsia fulgens is a soft-wooded shrub with thickened, tuberous underground parts, growing 0.5 – 3 metres tall Comments: Introduced in the 1830s to European gardeners. Named after Leonard Fuchs a 16th century doctor and botanist. East border Garden

Gardenia augusta syn. Gardenia jasminoides var. ‘florida’  “Magnifica”, “gold magic”. Glossy evergreen shrub with beautifully perfumed double white flowers. “Gold Magic” the flowers alter to yellow then ‘gold’ with variable effect. Prone to scale and mineral deficiency without maintenance.  Southern China, Japan, Garden hybrids  1.1875 (17 species,2 varieties G.florida), 1A.1885 (6 species incl. G.florida, G.radicans, G.thunbergia), 6.1897 (‘Gardenia sorts’), 7.1897, 9.1851, 10.1855 (G.florida)

Fuchsia x hybridum, Over a hundred Fuchsia species have been described, known by Europenas since the 18th Century. We only grow a couple of these throughout the garden as they strike easily from cutting. Tropical Americas. Refer Australian Fuchsia Society. 1A.1885 (20 garden varieties)2.1875,7.1897 (30 varieties), 9.1851 (varieties), 10.1855 (29 species and varieties)  East Border Garden, Fenced Rose garden, Central Shrub Garden

Fuchsia x hybridum  (white Shrub) from Rowenas garden East Border garden

Early Australian gardeners had access to new varieties within about a year of their European release and by the 1880s Australian catalogues listed over 400 cultivars of Fuchsia. Raised stone wall garden

 Gmelina hystrix  syn G.philippensis Sprawling plant with thorny stems similar to Bougainvillea. Pendulous tight yellow flowers are the main attraction. South East Asia

Grewia occidentalis (lavender star flower)  A small, scrambling, deciduous tree reaching a height of about 3m, its purple, star-shaped flowers appear in summer, followed by distinctive four-lobed berries (from where it gets its common names “crossberry” and “four-corner”). These shiny reddish-brown fruits remain on the tree for long periods and are favoured by fruit-eating birds. The simple leaves are shiny, deep green and sometimes slightly hairy . Named after the Nehemia Grew, a famous botanical illustrator. Does shape with pruning and may be used as a hedging plant. Southern Africa  1.1875, 1A.1885

Hibiscus insularis (Phillip Island Hibiscus). Glossy green foliage on erect shrub. Flowers yellow with red throat. Phillip Island in the Norfolk Island group. Hibiscus insularis is a species of hibiscus that is endemic to Phillip Island, a small island to the south of Norfolk Island. The entire natural extent of this species is just two small clumps, and each clump apparently consists of multiple separate stems of a single genotype. It has been propagated and planted more widely on Phillip Island, but only vegetatively which does not increase the genetic diversity. Seedlings apparently have not been observed in the wild. It produces greenish-yellow flowers that fade to mauve through most of the year. Central Shrub Garden

 Hibiscus mutabilis (Confederate Rose). Large Double white flowers and double pink bourne at the same time . Fully deciduous. Easy to strike from cutting. China  1.1875 (2 varieties), 9.1851, 10.1855 (2 var. incl double) Central Shrub garden

Hibiscus mutabilis  var. “Tony” single crimson. Large single flowers of a bright crimson. Deciduous. easy to strike from cutting. Garden hybrid? Central Shrub garden

Hibiscus syriacus (Rose of Sharon) Fully deciduous, in single mauve, double white, double red. Very hardy and long lived. Flowers will close if brought inside. Southern Asia-India to China 1.1875 (4 varieties), 1A.1885, 6.1897, 7.1897, 10.1855 (?H.indicum), 14.1868 Central Shrub garden

Hibiscus radiatus is native to southern and southeast Asia. It has 15 cm yellow flowers that have a purple center. Leaves are dentate, with upper leaves lobed into three or five parts. It is frequently grown as a vegetable or medicinal herb NW Corner

Hibiscus rosa sinensis var ‘Swan Lake’ standard (white), var. ‘lollipop’ (single pink). Reliable plants which respond best with pruning.Garden hybrid. Originally from China and South East Asia, then Pacific Islands.1.1875 (9 varieties), 1A.1885, 6.1897, 7.1897, 9.1851, 10.1855 (?H.sanguinea), 13.1900/1 refer Queensland Hibiscus Society. The history of Hibiscus in Australia dates back to the early 1800s when the MacArthurs planted single red Hibiscus in NSW. Criss Cross Garden

Hibiscus schizopetalum x rosa sinensis   Very hardy single red flowering hibiscus which strikes easily from cutting. Garden hybrid- East Africa  1A.1885 (H.rosa-sinensis var.schizopetalus), 13.1900/1 Blue Trellis garden

Holmskiolia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant) a large, sprawling evergreen tropical shrub native to the lower elevations of the southern Himalayas. First growing erect, the new, young branches dart outward and weep creating a scrambling plant that is almost vine-like. The genus name commemorates Johan Theodor Holmskiold (1731-1793), a Danish botanist who wrote Beata ruris otia fungis Danicis, published in two volumes in 1790 and 1799. It is native to the Himalayas (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar) Chinese-hat plant is a large, sprawling evergreen tropical shrub native to the lower elevations of the southern Himalayas. First growing erect, the new, young branches dart outward and weep creating a scrambling plant that is almost vine-like. orange flowers. Poor flower frequency in our garden. Northern India 1A.1885 Central Lawn and Border

Holmskioldia sanguinea “Blue Mandarin”.  Beautiful pendulous mauve/pale blue flowers on this sparse shrub. Garden hybrid Central Shrub Garden

Holmskiodia sanguinea ‘Mandarin Rouge’ (red) Central Shrub garden and Central Lawn and border

Holmskiodia sanguinea ‘Mandarin Sunrise’ (yellow-greenish yellow flowers) Central Shrub Garden

Hydrangea macrophylla. Brittle deciduous shrubs with large flower heads of white or blue in our acidic soil. In alkaline conditions the same plants would have pink flowers. Strike easily from cutting.Japan 1.1875 (H.hortensis),  2.1875, 1A.1885 (4 species hortensis, japonica 3 var, Otasko, paniculata),  7.1897 (7 varieties), 9.1851 (H.japonica, H.hortensis), 10.1855 (H.japonica, H.hortensis), 14.1868 (hortensis) Central Shrub Garden, East Border Garden, West of House

Hydrangea scandens   subspecies chinensis f.formosanum. A white lacecap Hydrangea with very narrow leaves. Southern Taiwan Central Shrub Garden

Hydrangea dichroa versicolor  var.“Oriental evergreen” An evergreen Hydrangea which has quite tall growth and blue/white flower panicles. Strikes easily from cutting. China West of House , Central Shrub Garden, Easy Border garden

Iochroma cyaneum.   Tall growing untidy shrub with remarkable blue/black tubular flowers. Strikes easily from cutting. Resents drying out. Contains toxic alkaloids, all parts poisonous as for Brugmansia spp. Ecuador  1.1875 (Jochroma 2 species), 1A.1885 (Iochroma tubulosa), 7.1897 (Jochroma tubulosa), 9.1851 (Jochroma tubulosa), 10.1855 (Iochroma tubulosa) Front Path Garden

 Iochroma coccinea x hybrid “wine red” An untidy lax shrub which has tubular flowers of crimson/ red in contrast to I. cyaneum. Garden hybrid Blue Trellis garden

Iochroma fuchsioides  This rare Brugmansia relative puts out endless numbers of brilliant scarlet trumpet flowers. Found in Ecuador and Colombia. It was first described in 1848. front path garden

Iochroma warscewiczii  A tall shrub or small tree with large pendulous heads of violet-blue flowers in hanging clusters. Blooms summer to autumn over a long period. The species, which is native to Peru, was formally described in 1855 by German botanist Eduard August von Regel. Front Path Garden

 Iresine diffusa (Jubas Bush) Variegated low growing brittle shrunb with very attractive white leaves. A ground cover. South America Front Path garden, Fenced Rose garden, East Border Gardens

Iresine lindenii (blood leaf) Beautiful red foliage accent under trees. Low brittle sub-shrub. Strikes from cutting.  Ecuador ?syn. I.herbstii.1.1875, 1A.1885 , 13.1900/1

Iresine herbstii   Green and yellow coloured foliage accent in shade or protected spot. Iresine easily struck from cutting.  Brazil ?syn.I.lindenii  1.1875, 1A.1885 (var.reticulata), 13.1900/1  Fernery, NW Corner

Ixora coccinea syn. Pavetta coccinea “White Malay”  tropical plant with its dark glossy leaves, is topped by magnificent bright White heads of flower. Species most often red flowering.The flowers of Ixora have a tube-like appearance with four petals, and grow in groups of up to 60 in a cluster; and after flowering, the plant often produces red, to dark purple or black berries. India, Sri Lanka. East Border garden

Ixora coccinea x compacta ‘Gold fire’ Jungle Geranium.yellow flowering form of Ixora, a widely used tropical to subtropical plant for colourful hedges or borders. With glossy green foliage year round and bright, striking colourful balls of flowers in the warmer months. Tropical Asia. NW corner garden

Jasminium sambac (arabian jasmine) Slow growing evergreen climbing shrub with support. Single white summer flowers of exquisite perfume. South Western and Southern Asia  10.1855 (J.zambac) Jasminium sambac var.“Chinese Emperor”,var “Grand Duke of Tuscany” These varieties ?sports  of J.sambac have been very slow to establish and their small double flowers may be less attractive than the species itself. India , southern Asia

Jacobina, Justicia and Libonia are names sometimes used synonymously depending on the age of plant references used. South Rose garden, Back Verandah

Justicia adhatoda, commonly known in English as Malabar nut, adulsa, adhatoda, vasa, or vasaka, A stiff, evergreen, much-branched perennial shrub with a strong, unpleasant odour, 1.2-6 m tall. Leaves opposite, elliptic-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, margins entire, apex acute, 5-30 cm long, hairy, light green above, dark beneath, leathery. Flowers large, white with red or yellow-barred throats, borne in compact, axillary, pedunculate spikes with large bracts. Fruits (capsules) clavate, longitudinally channelled, 1.9-2.2 cm long and 0.8 cm wide, pubescent. Seeds globula is a medicinal plant native to Asia, widely used in Siddha MedicineAyurvedic, homeopathy and Unani systems of medicine. The leaves of Adhatoda vasica contains phytochemicals such as alkaloids, tannins, saponins, phenolics and flavonoids The most important is vasicine,a quinazoline alkaloid.                                                           Sri Lanka, NepalBangladeshIndiaPakistanIndonesiaMalaysia, and ChinaCentral Shrub Garden

Justicia betonica (White) This tough, self seeding tall plant has white flowers, with a touch of pink, not unlike Salvia but more upright. Tropical East Africa 1.1875, 7.1897 Front Path Garden

Justicia brandegeeana (Mexican shrimp plant, shrimp plant or false hop) is an evergreen shrub in the genus Justicia of the family Acanthaceae, native to Mexico, and also naturalized in Florida.It grows to 1 m tall (rarely more) with spindly limbs. The leaves are oval, green, 3-7.5 cm long. The tiny flowers are white, extending from yellow or red bracts which look a bit like a shrimp, hence the shrub’s common name, shrimp flower. The species is named after the American botanist Townsend Stith Brandegee (1843–1925); the scientific name is commonly seen misspelled “brandegeana“. Front Path Garden, Central Lawn and Borders.

Justicia carnea (both white and pink hybrids) Interesting tall “candles” of flower bracts on tough shrub. This low maintenance, self seeding plant introduces colour under trees in a warm climate garden. Central and South America 1.1875 (J.carnea, J.alba), 1A.1885 (Jacobinia magnifica), 7.1897, 9.1851, 10.1855 Orchid Walk, NW Corner,

Justicia rizzinii syn Libonia floribunda, Jacobinia pauciflora. A species of flowering plant in the family Acanthaceae, native to Brazil.It is a dwarf, rounded evergreenshrub growing to 30–60 cm (12–24 in) tall and wide, with downy stems and leaves, and spikes of nodding, tubular flowers of yellow shading to scarlet at the base. Each pair of leaves has one leaf smaller than the other. It requires a frost-free environment, so is often grown under glass in temperate regions. Lovely compact shrub in garden, evergreen with small tubular flowers of yellow/red. Brazil. Central Lawn and Borders. Central Lawn Borders

Kerria japonica flore pleno A tall arching shrub with apple green foliage and bright yellow double flowers in spring and summer. China  1.1875, 1A.1885, 1A.1885,  6.1897,7.1875, 9.1851, 10.1855 Central Shrub Garden

Kohleria erianthe It is a shrubby perennial plant from South America, with very tactile, velvety leaves edged and veined beneath with orange, and long hanging trumpet-shaped orange flowers. Because of their colorful and exotically patterned flowers, as well as a general interest in the many tropical flowering plants that were being introduced from the Americas, Kohlerias were very popular in England and Europe in the 19th Century. Many species and hybrids were lavishly illustrated in horticultural magazines such as Curtis’s Botanical Magazine under the discarded or erroneous names of AchimenesGesneriaIsolomaSciadocalyx, and Tydaea. These species and hybrids almost entirely disappeared in the early 20th Century, and plant breeders have only recently begun to work extensively with this genus again. Columbia  West of Fenced Rose garden

Kopsia fruticosa Synonyms : Cerbera fruticosa, Kopsia vincaeflora, Acokanthera roxburghii, Kopsia roxburghii  Shrub Vinca, Pink Kopsia The Kopsia fruticosa (Roxb.) A.DC. (1844) is native of the Myanmar. The genus is honoured to the Dutch politician and botanist Jan Kops (1765-1849); This is a tall bush with simple pale green leathery leaves, and the delicate five-petaled flowers are white or a very pale pink, with a vivid crimson centre. Unlike many other plants, frequent pruning stunts its growth. Myanmar.  North Boundary

Lantana montevideiensis   This low growing shrub has mauve flowers and healthy foliage which has a distinctive odour when crushed. This species has not proven to be as invasive as L. camara.South America. 1.1875 (6 spp including L.purpurea), 7.1897, 9.1851 (3 Lantana species), 10.1855 (3 Lantana species) Front Path garden

Lagerstroemia indica. (Crepe myrtle) pink and mauve unnamed varieties. A beautiful tall shrub or statuesque tree. Deciduous, the overall shape, bark and flowers are all very attractive.  India, China, Korea 1A.1885,.9.1851, 14.1868  East Borders

 Lagerstroemia speciosa, (Queen crepe myrtle) This is a lovely tree rather than a shrub. The leaves and crimson/pink flowers are much larger L.indica.South East Asia, India,Phillipines.  1A.1885 (L.flos-reginea), 14.1868 (L.regia) Blue Trellis Garden

Leonotis leonurus   Lax perennial which needs support . White flowers resembling Justicia or Plectranthus. South Africa  1.1875, 1A.1885, 7.1897, 10.1855 North Rose garden

Lobelia laxiflora Mexican lobelia, Narrow leaf shrub , orange and yellow flowers. It is also considered poisonous. The plant contains alkaloids and other toxic oils that can cause vomiting, diarrhea or other problems if consumed. Introduced to Britain in 1825.    Mexico, South, Central, and North America as far north as Arizona in the United States Central Lawn and border garden near pool fence

Loropetalum chinensis (Standard white Fringe flower) and var. ‘China Pink’ . var. ‘Plumtastic’. Beautiful tough shrub for deep bronze new foliage. Requires pruning to maintain shape. Will tolerate sun or shade. Both foliage and flowers make this quite large shrub attractive. Japan and South East Asia. Front Path Garden

Malphigia coccigera (Barbados holly} Low growing shrub with holly like foliage and small pink flowers in summer. West indies  1.1875 (2 varieties),1A.1885 (2 speces incl M.coccifera). Central Shrub Garden

Malvaviscus arboreus   These are a lovely strong accent plant resembling hibiscus. The red or pink flowers remain folded closed and hang down. Central America  1.1875, 1A.1885 (M.arborens) Front Path Garden

Medinilla apoensis ‘Philippine Pink’  Bright pink, 1.5” flowers appear in well-branched, pendant clusters that arise from the distinctively veined foliage. Unlike many in the genus, this species’ floral show comes from the large, 5 petal flowers rather than the hanging bracts. Obtained from Darryl Baptie and Camellia Glen Phillipines Potted near back stairs

Medinella myriantha  var. ‘Pixi’ Subtropical epiphytic shrub which needs moisture, drainage and shade/part shade. Dramatic tassals of pink flowers in summer. Phillipines.  1.1875 (M.speciosus),1A.1885 (M.exiuria), 13.1900/1 (M.magnifica) West of house

Melastoma sanguinium   Brittle shrub with form and habit reminiscent of Tibouchina spp. Single pink-mauve flowers in spring  South East asia.1A.1885 (M.sanguinea) Pool Embankment

Mellianthus major ( Honey bush) Perhaps out of it’s natural zone in a subtropical garden this plant is grown for it’s serrated and folded leaves, more than it’s red flowers. South Africa 1.1875, 9.1851, 13.1900/1 South Rose garden

 Magnolia x loebneri “Merrill”  M. kobus x M. stellata. White flowers reminiscent of Magnolia stellata in spring. Deciduous. Central Lawn Borders

Magnolia liliiflora  cv. “Vulcan” Candles of Mauve pink in spring. Deciduous magnolia.

Michelia champaca (Himalaya magnolia) Lovely open small tree with large leaves that may hang down. Yellow perfumed flowers in spring/summer.Foothills of the Himalayas  1.1875, 1A.1885, 13.1900/1 Central lawn Borders

Magnolia syn. Michelia doltsopa var “silver cloud” Tall growing Michelia with perfumed white flowers, late summer early winter. Quite a sparse shrub or small tree when young. China- Garden hybrid 1.1875 (M.doltsopa) North Driveway

Magnolia syn. Michelia x hybrid “bubbles” (M.doltsopa x M.figo) Strong open pyramidal growth, delicious perfume on small rounded Magnolia like flowers early winter. Garden hybrid Driveway, South Rose garden

Magnolia syn. Michelia x hybrid “Mixed up miss” (M.doltsopa x M.figo)  Similar in flower and form to M. ‘bubbles’. Tall growing shrub or small tree Driveway

Magnolia syn. Michelia pumila “coco” Strong rounded evergreen shrub. Yellow tinge to strongly perfumed flowers. This plant is sold quite commonly. As with most Michelias they seem quite easy to establish and low maintenance with minimal care in our elevated subtropical climate. China East Border Garden, West of Fenced Rose garden

Magnolia syn.Michelia yunnanensis Very open evergreen growth and small leaves, beautiful fragrant open star like flowers in summer. China West of Fenced Rose garden

Magnolia syn. Michelia yunnanensis var. “Oriental Pearl” A tall, open, evergreen lax shrub with small foliage and small white perfumed flowers in summer. China garden hybrid Back Stairs

Magnolia syn. Michelia figo (port wine magnolia) Commonly sold as an evergreen landscaping or hedging plant these can grow into a small tree. Dull yellow flowers tinged with pink are often hidden in the foliage. Intense sweet perfume from mature specimens as with other Michelias China   1A.1885 (Magnolia fuscata), 6.1897 (?Magnolia fuscata) East Border Garden, West of Fenced Rose garden

Magnolia syn. Michelia figo (“Queen of the night”). As with many varietal Michelias the features which make this hybrid distinct from the species are quite subtle, in this case an increase in size of leaves and flowers. China, garden hybrid. North Of Plough Inn

Medinilla apoensis ‘Philippine Pink’  Bright pink, 1.5” flowers appear in well-branched, pendant clusters that arise from the distinctively veined foliage. Unlike many in the genus, this species’ floral show comes from the large, 5 petal flowers rather than the hanging bracts. Obtained from Darryl Baptie and Camellia Glen Phillipines Potted near back stairs.

Medinilla myriantha is a species of semi-epiphytic plant with pink flowers that are produced in the summer and spring. These plants grow up to six feet tall. It is also known as the Malaysian orchid, but is in the family Melastomataceae. There are many other types of Medinilla myriantha such as the rose grapes, pixi, and pink lantern. Some of these have fruit, usually purple pink. Medinilla is named for José de Medinilla y Pineda, who was governor of Mauritius (then known as the Marianne Islands) in 1820  Phillipines. Potted near back stairs

Megakepasma erythrodamys (Brazilian red coat) Lax brittle tall shrub with red flower panicles. Quite dramatic form or flower colour in shade.  Venezuela Near Pool , West of House

Metrosideros tormentosa variegata .(New Zealand Christmas bush)Variegated variety of a common landscaping plant. These are very hardy. Pacific Islands 1.1875, 1A.1885 (M.scandens), 7.1897, 9.1851, 13.1900/1 Stone Circle

Odontonema callistachyum syn. Justicia callistachya (Purple Firespike) – An upright evergreen shrub that grows to 2 to 3 meters feet tall with lush deep green foliage and terminal spikes of lavender-purple flowers that appear summer through late winter to year round. Plant in shade to full coastal sun where it tolerates most soils. An inflorescence consisting of scores of tubular flowers develops at the tip of nearly every branch, providing an extended period of bloom. The flower spikes can reach nearly a foot long when fully developed. Hummingbirds and butterflies are attracted to the inch-long blooms Mexico and Central America

Odontonema strictum, syn. Odontonema longifolium, syn Justicia tubaeformis ( Firespike)
Firespike is attractive evergreen shrub with sparse, stiff branches that grow mostly straight up to about 6 ft tall. It has shiny dark green leaves with wavy margins and long pointed tips. The leaves are oblong, arranged opposite each other on the stem, and 4-6 in long. From late summer through winter firespike produces abundant  upright panicles of brilliant red tubular flowers. The individual flowers are about an inch long and two-lipped. Flowers attract butterflies. Firespike is native to open, semi-forested areas in Central America. Anthurium Walk, NW Corner

Osmanthus fragrans    Tall somewhat drab shrub, exquisite perfume from tiny white flowers hidden by the foliage. This perfume is the justification for growing this plant.China East Border Garden

Osmanthus heterophylla variegata.   Holly like variegated foliage makes this shrub useful in the garden. Tiny fragrant flowers. Japan  1.1875 (O.ilicfolius variegatus),7.1897

Otocanthus caeruleus   (Little Blue Boy, Brazilian Snapdragon) West of Fenced Rose Garden

 Pachystacys lutea. Low growing shrub with golden flower spikes in summer. Tolerates shade and illuminates these areas of the garden as for Justicia carnea. Peru Orchid Walk, Blue Trellis Garden

Pavonia coccinea  syn, Lebretonia coccinea . The genus named for Manuel le Breton a French Botonist.  ‘Shooting Star’ Erect shrub with red flowers not unlike the rosella Brazil    Central Shrub Garden

Pentas lanceolata   Unnamed varieties in pink, white and crimson/red single flowers in heads, in summer on a lax, brittle low growing shrub. These tolerate dry shade and are easily struck from cutting. Tropical East Africa 1.1875 (P.carnea) 1A.1885 (P.carnea) East Border Garden , NE Corner, Central Shrub Garden

 Philadelphus “Belle Etoile” Small shrub has lime green oval shaped leaves.  In Spring, it grows upright sprays of single white, outward bell sprays of flowers with a pink eye in the centre. Each flower is about 3cm in diameter. The flowering shrub has a lovely orange blossom fragrance; hence the common name ‘mock orange’.  The foliage then turns yellow in Autumn and then falls off. Winter dormant.Height 1.5 – 2m. Width 1 – 1.5m. Full sun/ part shade. East Border Garden

Philadelphus mexicanus (Mock Orange) Philidelpus spp.  Single and Double forms . Our deciduous shrubs do not immediately resemble P. mexicanus but may be a hybrid of P. coronarius producing long canes with bright green foliage and white single, perfumed flowers in summer. Slow to establish. Widespread in temperate areas, many garden hybrids. Southern Europe 1.1875 (4 species), 1A.1885 (4 species coronarius, inodorus, mexicanus speciosus), 7.1897 94 spp), 9.1851 Central Shrub Gardens, Stone Circle, East Border Gardens

Phormium tenax (red flax var. ‘Bronze Baby’) Architectural tall plant producing strap like leaves in a bronze/red colour. New Zealand 1.1875, 7.1897 Front Embankment

Photinea x fraseri “Red Robyn” x 4  Criss  Cross Garden west border

Photinea glabra While Photinea may become a small tree it is often grown for hedging or as a pruned shrub to take advantage of the bright red new foliage. China, Korea, Stone Circle, Front Path GardenJapan  1.1875 (P.senata) ,1A.1885 (P.japonica, P. serrulata), 9.1851 (P.arbutifolia), 14.1868

Pieris japonica “temple bells” “Forest Flame” Lovely slow growing shrub. New foliage burgundy/red, Chains of small white bell like flowers in spring. Islands between Japan and Taiwan SE Corner of House, Fenced Rose Garden

Pittosporum tenuifolium. Small tree to 10m. The flowers generally go unnoticed because of their colour, a very dark reddish-purple, and are scented only at night. It is found growing wild in coastal and lower mountain forest areas up to an altitude of 900m New Zealand Stone circle

Plumbago auriculata , standard pale blue, white or mid-blue var. ‘Royal Cape’. Reliable sprawling landscaping or hedging plant, summer flowering. Will spread via root runners or cover low growing structures. Very drought and shade tolerant. South Africa 1.1875 (3 spp incl P. capensis), 1A.1885 (P.zeylandica var.capensis),  6.1897,  7.1897, 9.1851 (P.capensis) 14.1868

Plumbago indica (syn. P. rosea), Indian leadwort, scarlet leadwort. Plumbago indica  Plumbago indica grows to 2 m (7 ft) tall by 1 m (3 ft) wide. It is a spreading evergreen shrub with oval leaves. It produces racemes of deep pink or scarlet flowers in winter. Central Shrub garden.  Southeast Asia, Philipines, Indonesia China Central Shrub Garden

Plumbago zeylanica, Ceylon leadwort,  Scrambling plant with white flowers . central shrub garden in the North. Plumbago zeylanica .Plant extracts have shown potent mosquito larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti while showing no toxicity to fish. South Asia Central Shrub Garden

Plumeria rubra (Frangipani) The well known Frangipani is a small tree or large shrub, deciduous, with large leaves. The common variety has a white flower with yellow throat but many other colour varieties exist from red, pink through to apricot and ‘fruit salad’. Perfumed. Strikes from stem cuttings.  Central America, Mexico, Venezuela 1.1875 (P.acutifolia), 1A.1885 (P.acuminata ‘Franchipanier or Pagoda tree). West of House, NW Corner

 Posoqueria longiflora Needle Flower Tree. Long tubular white flowers with distinctive night time fragrance. Grows to a modest sized tree in tropical areas and will flower throughout the year as long as the light level is high and the temperatures are warm. It has spreading branches and large glossy, deep green leaves. A somewhat slow grower, it forms clusters of blooms on the ends of the newest growth. Once established, it can tolerate varying light conditions and watering. The genus was established by Aublet in 1775 on material from French Guiana. South America North west Corner garden

Pseuderanthemum laxiflorum  ‘Purple Riot” shooting star. This is a well-branched herbaceous perennial to small shrub with opposite leaves and purple flowers held singly or in small groups near branch tips. This plant is native to Polynesia Fiji Islands   Central Shrub garden

Prunus persica (unnamed variety dwarf ornamental Peach). Our prunus ornamental varieties may give reliable if short display of double pink flowers in spring. These benefit from disease control in our subtropical climate Garden hybrid  1A.1885,  7.1897 Front Path Garden

Punica granatum   Var. ‘Flore pleno alba’, ‘Andre le Roi’ (red and double white ornamental pomegranate). Deciduous ornamental shrub to small tree with spring flowers followed by fruit West Asia 1.1875, 1A.1885,  2.1875, 7.1897, 9.1851, 14.1868 North of Fenced Rose Garden

Pycnostachys urticifolia. (Hedgehog Sage) Brittle, upright salvia like evergreen, aromatic, perennial shrub, with beautiful dark blue flowers, which bloom very late in autumn.  Seed formation which follows has long sharp spikes. Easily raised from cutting, tolerates dry shaded position. South Africa North Rose garden, East Border Garden

 Radermachera sinica   var ‘Summerscent’  Evergreen shrub with large scented flowers in summer. Radermachera sp. ‘Kunming’ sold under the tradename ‘Summerscent’ is a fast growing, scented, trending plant in Australia. Useful as an informal screen (pruning aggressively after flowering) or a small tree if trained to a single trunk (cinture before flowering to maximise flower production and reduce crown after flowering).The genus is named after Jacob Cornelis Matthieu Radermacher, the 18th century Dutch naturalist who cataloged much of the flora of Java and Sumatra. East Asia East Border Garden

Raphiolepis delacourtii x indica “Apple Blossom” East border NE corner of house

Rhaphiolepsis indica. (Indian hawthorne) R. indica “Springtime”,  a common, sometimes overlooked landscaping plant. These are very hardy but do not seem to thrive in our cooler moist conditions. Flowers quite charming on close inspection. Japan and China 1.1875 (2 species), 1A.1885 (indica, ovata) 6.1897,  7.1897 (R.ovata), 14.1868 Stone Circle, East Border Garden

Reinwardtia indica (yellow flax) Strong yellow single flowers and low upright habit. This is a cheerful and striking border plant. A yellow dye made from the flowers is used for dyeing clothes and making paintsMay self seed. Northern India and China 1A.1885 (Reinwardtia trigym) Pool Embankment and NW Corner Garden

Rhododendron ponticum This cool climate plant has prospered with protection on the cool side of our house. It has lovely mauve flowers in spring and similar cultural requirements to the Azaleas. (Rhododendron indica) growing around it. Spain-Portugal  1.1875, 1A.1885,  2.1875, 9.1851, 13.1900/1

Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ceylon hill cherry) Lovely wooly foliage and pink single peach like flowers followed by purple berries or ‘cherries’. Very hardy and even shade tolerant once established.  Southern asia 1.1875 (R.tomentosus), 13.1900/1 Front Path Garden, Central Shrub Garden

 Rondoletia amoena syn. Rogiera amoena Evergreen shrub. Rough or leathery foliage. Pink flower clusters in Spring. It’s one of those old-fashioned shrubs that have fallen out of favour for no apparent reason. It’s very attractive, and really easy to grow. Named after Guilaume Rondelet – a French physician.  Guatemala, Mexico NE border garden

Rondoletia leucophylla var. “sweet petite, Russian star” Bright pink single flowers on a low growing shrub which forms arching canes.  Central America, garden hybrid  1A.1885 (3 species hirsuta, speciosa, versicolor) Front Path Garden

Rondeletia splendens Rose coloured flower clusters with yellow centres in warm climates. At their peak the flowers form in clusters. Attracts birds and butterflies to your garden. Releases a beautiful floral scent in the evening, ovate leaves resemble Spiraea Central America. Central Shrub Garden

Ruellia elegans  (Brazilian petunia)  This species has open-faced coral-red blossoms from late spring until autumn. a large natural range from Chile to Brazil. East Border Garden

Ruellia graecizans (red Christmas pride). Low growing shade tolerant subshrub with red bell like flowers in summer. Self seeds easily. South America Self seeded throughout the garden

Ruellia makoyana, the monkey plant or trailing velvet plant,. Evergreen perennial growing to 60 cm (24 in) tall by 45 cm (18 in) wide, with white-veined hairy leaves and trumpet-shaped pink flowers in summer. Ruellia makoyana was described and the name validly published by Jules Closon in 1895. Brazil  Blue Trellis garden

Ruellia macrantha .Tall upright shrub with large leaves and pink single bell shaped flowers Brazil 1.1875 (3 Ruellia species), 1A.1885 (formosa, herbstii), 9.1851 (R.formosa), 13.1900/1 (R.elegens, R.rosea) East Border Garden

Ruellia simplex, ( Mexican petunia, Mexican bluebell or Britton’s wild petunia),. It is a native of Mexico, the Caribbean, and South America. It was named and described by Carlos (Charles) Wright in ‘Flora Cubana’ in 1870. It has become a widespread invasive plant in Florida, where it was likely introduced as an ornamental before 1933. NW Corner garden, North Rose Garden

Ruellia squarrosa syn. Dipteracanthus squarrosus (Creeping Ruellia), Creeping groundcover with blue to violet single flowers. Ruellia squarrosa (Fenzl) Cufodontis ex E. Walker] represents a later synonym for Ruellia longepetiolata (Oerst.) Hemsl., which has priority published in 1855. Favours natural watercourses, forest edges and disturbed zones. It is a sprawling perennial herb with branches to 60cm. It has square stems which grow from underground rhizomes. Grows in sun or dry shade. Southern Mexico. East Border garden, Stone circle

Ruscus microglossus  (Butchers Broon) Low growing tough plant with modified shoots resembling leaves with the tiny flower carried at the centre Europe North Africa  1A.1885 (R.aculcatus)  NW Corner

Russellia equisitiformis syn. R.juncea incl varieties ‘tangerine falls’ and ‘lemon falls’ fine foliage, evergreen clump forming shrub with tiny tubular flowers usually in red. The above named varieties have flowers in pastel shades 1A.1885 (R.juncea),  6.1897,  9.1851, 13.1900/1 Blue Trellis Garden

Russelia sarmentosa Broadleaf Firecracker Plant has a similar growth habit to R. equisetiformis but has broad leaves. Red flowers are borne in dense clusters at the ends of the stalks. It is somewhat drought tolerant but responds well to irrigation. It is shrub up to 2 m tall with 4-6-angled stems. Leaves are ovate, up to 7 cm long, toothed along margin, resinous-dotted. Attracts butterflies and hummingbirds. Mexico to Colombia Central Shrub Garden

Ruttya fruticosa  shrub which is native to Africa. It can be found in South Somalia to Tanzania and in the woodlands of DhofarOman.[2] The name Ruttya was named in honour of Dr John Rutty and fruticosa means shrubby and refers to the habit of the plant. The flower blooms usually bloom during late spring/early summer, mid summer, and late summer/early fall. This plant is attractive to beesbutterflies, and birds. It has average water needs. In addition, it requires a pH range 6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic). They have a varying colour, ranging from orange to dark pink/violet. The flowers of Ruttya fruiticosa used to be pulled off and sucked to extract the sweet nectar.[4] The twigs were used to make kohl sticks and wedge-shaped dividers, which women used to part and plait hair. This plant was also used as fodder for cattle and cattle, especially camels and goats. The flowers of the Ruttya fruitcosa are also an important bee forage  NW corner garden

Sambucus nigra (elderberry) Tall growing perennial or shrub with white flower panicles, followed by ‘elder berries’. Europe- North Africa 1.1875, 1A.1885, 7.1897, 9.1851, 13.1900/1.  Western boundary.

Scutellaria costaricana  (Scarlet skullcap) Tender perennial native to Costa Rica, where it grows in the mountain forests at elevations as high as 2,000 m (6,500 ft). It is grown as a house plant for its orange- red flowers which are borne in rich terminal clusters. It is a member of the mint family. East Border garden

Solanum rantonnetii (standard and variegated variety “khloe”) An untidy low growing shrub with purple single ‘potato flowers’. When established these plants can be quite striking. Argentina Paraguay 13.1900/  Stone Circle garden, Central shrub garden, Blue Trellis Garden

Spiraea x bumada  Pink. Spiraea japonica is one of the parent plants of Spiraea x bumalda. Pink flowering semideciduous, low growing Spiraea China Central Shrub Garden

Spiraea bumada  (S.albiflora x S.japonica) var. ‘pink Ice’ Foliage almost white with pale spots . Clusters of white rather than pink flower heads garden hybrid. Next to North Path

Spiraea bumada  (S.albiflora x S.japonica) var. ‘Anthony Waterer”  A low growing plant with heads of pink flowers in spring.  Garden hybrid  Central Shrub Garden

 Spiraea cantoniensis flore pleno (double white may) A moderately tall arching shrub with a cloud of small double white flowers in spring. Spiraea cantoniensis florepleno had a double introduction into Europe.  J. Saul of Washington D.C., writing in the Journal of the Horticultural Society in 1852 commented: ‘When this plant first made its appearance in England, and in some parts of Europe, it was hailed as a great acquisition.  Mr. Fortune sent it from China to the Horticultural Society’s Garden at Chiswick [in 1844] and Mr. Van Houtte had it from Dr. Van Siebold’ [who found it cultivated in a Japanese garden]. Van Houtte placed a large advertisement in ‘The Gardeners Chronicle’ of 1847, including a list of 95 individuals and organisations to whom he had sold plants, including Veitch’s and Loddiges’ nurseries.In the 1850 and 1857 catalogues at Camden Park NSW.  Will tolerate sun or shade and may be used as a landscaping or hedging plant. China Japan (syn. S.corymbolosa) 1.1875 (S.japonicum, S.corymbosa), 1A.1885 (4 species), 7.1897 (S.japonica, S.douglassi, S.prunifolia, S.reevsiana), 9.1851 (S.corymbosa, S.prunifolia), 13.1900/1, 14.1868 (S.corymbosa) Central Shrub Garden, East Border Garden

Spiraea prunifolia ‘Plena Bridal wreath spirea, bears tiny double white flowers on bare branches early in spring, before the glossy green leaves appear. Some red autumn color.  China Central Shrub Garden

 Spiraea reevsiana syn. Spiraea cantoniensis This is the single flowering white Spiraea and in all respects is as for S. cantoniensis above but no that easy to obtain. China Central Shrub garden

  Strobilanthes anisophyllus   (Goldfussia) A mid sized shrub, evergreen with long thin leaves and mauve tubular bell flowers . May self seed.   Tropical Asia   1.1875 (Goldfussia anisophyllus), 1A.1885, 7.1897 (G.anisophylla), 9.1851 (G.anisophylla), 10.1875, 13.1900/1  Front Path Garden, West of Fenced Rose garden

Strobilanthes dyeriantha (Persian Shield) a low growing shrub with mauve and green pattern spear shaped leaves. Needs both shade and moisture tropical Asia 1.1875 Araucaria walk, East Border garden

Strobilanthes cusia syn.S.flaccidifolius Tall lax plant ,spring flowering with pendulous crimson bells. Needs moisture to establish. China. Central Lawn Borders, North of Plough Inn, South Rose garden

Tecomaria capensis aurea (Yellow cape honeysuckle) var.“Golden chimes”  tough interesting plant may sucker invasively. Bright yellow flowers are very attractive. Species has orange flowers.  South East Africa 1.1875 (Tecoma capensis), 1A.1885 (Tecoma capensis), 9.1851 (Tecoma capensis), 13.1900/1, 14.1868 Pool Fence

 Tecomaria x hybrid “Hammers rose” Interesting dusty salmon pink flower colour. Tough invasive shrub needs pruning. South East Africa, garden hybrid South Rose garden

Tetradenia riparia  misty plume bush, ginger bush (English); gemmerbos, watersalie (Afrikaans); iboza, ibozane (Zulu). The ginger bush is a tall, aromatic shrub up to 3 m in height, occasionally reaching 5 m. It is slightly succulent and has an irregular branch pattern. The stems are brown and smooth, except for the younger portions which are covered with glandular hairs and have a ruby tinge. The natural distribution ranges from KwaZulu-Natal, Northern Province, Mpumalanga in South Africa, to Swaziland, Namibia, Angola and northwards through tropical east Africa into Ethiopia. Fenced Garden 13.1900/1

Thunbergia erecta (Kings mantle) Untidy, sprawling sub-shrub. Beautiful purple trumpet flowers with a yellow throat in spring/ early summer. Tropical Africa  1A.1885, 13.1900/1

Thunbergia erecta (White) West Africa  Central Shrub Garden NE Corner, East Borders.

Tibouchina lepidota var. “Alstonville” Perhaps more of a small tree than a large shrub with quite brittle branches. Spectacular covering of single purple flowers in summer. Brazil, Australian garden hybrid. West Boundary

 Vaccinium corymbosum (Blueberry)  Many commercially sold species with English common names including “blueberry” are currently classified in section Cyanococcus of the genus Vaccinium Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with indigo-colored berries, shrub to 1 meter tall, loving acid soil. Blueberries are grown all over Australia. The warmer areas of Australia grow Southern Highbush and Rabbiteye (low chill) varieties while the cooler areas and areas that experience frost grow Northern Highbush (high chill) varieties. North America Central Shrub Garden.

Rhododendron vireya “Dixie”  Yellow Tropical Rhododendron  Near Plough inn

Vireya (Rhododendron vireya)       “Elegant bouquet”




“Sweet Rosalie”

Very vermillion”

“Coral Seas”



Vireyas originate from South East Asia to New Guinea in elevated locations and many garden hybrids are produced. See Australian Rhododendron Society 1.1875 (?Rhododendron javanicum), 9.1851 (R.javanicum)  East Border Garden, North Rose garden

 Viburnum farreri (syn. V. fragrans). Growing to 3 m (10 ft) tall by 2.5 m (8 ft) broad, it is an erect deciduous shrub[2] with sweetly perfumed, pink-tinged white blooms from late autumn to early spring. Its dark green leaves are bronze when young, turning brilliant shades of red-purple in autumn. V. farreri grows in moist but well-drained soil in sun or partial shade. Commemorates the English plant collector Reginald Farrer. E acquired it as a cutting in Toowoomba. China North of Fenced Rose garden

Viburnum macrocephalum   (Chinese Snowball bush). Semideciduous shrub with large heads of creamy white flowers resembling Hydrangea in Spring China 13.1900/1 West of House

Viburnum suspensum (Sandankwa viburnum), is a compact, perennial shrub up to 3.7 m in height. The coarse leaves are dark green and densely cover the shrub. They are oval with serrated edges about 3.5 inches (8.9 cm) long and 2 inches (5 cm) wide and are held oppositely on rough textured, dark brown stems. Small tubular flowers are borne on the ends of new branches in the spring, and sporadically appear in the summer. They are white to pale pink, followed by small red berries in the fall Japan East Border Gardens

Viburnum odoratissimum “emerald lustre” Tough upright large shrub glossy foliage, white flowers. This Viburnum responds well to pruning and may be a useful hedging plant. China  1.1875 (10 species Viburnum), 1A.1885 (V.odoratissimum), 7.1897, 13.1900/1 East Border Gardens

Wiegela florida Tall shrub or small tree, deciduous, covered in lovely pink flowers in early spring. May look untidy in autumn often holding dead leaves. Strikes easily from cutting. China Korea 7.1897 (W.amabilis, W.rosea, W.variegata), 9.1851 (W.rosea), 13.1900, 14.1868 Stone Circle

Wiegela florida var. ‘Eva Rathke’  crimson to red flowering Weigela, deciduous. China Korea garden hybrids Stone Circle, North Of Fenced Rose garden

Weigela florida variegata. As for W. Florida above with variegated foliage. Weigela florida, distributed in North China, Korea and Manchuria, was found by Robert Fortune and imported to England in 1845                                    stone circle

GRASSES a few at “The Shambles” 2015

Described in early Queensland references and still well known 2.1883

Cynodon dactylon   (Couch grass)

Paspalum distichum (P.dilatatum)   Paspalum grass

Stenotaphrum americanum (S.secundatum)   Buffolo grass

Trifolium repens   (Dutch or white clover)

WEEDS , a small selection of,  2015

Araujia sericifera   (White moth vine) South America

Asparagus aethiopicus   (Asparagus fern) 1A.1885, 13.1900/1 South Africa.

Bidens pilosa   (Cobblers pegs) 1A.1885  Tropical America

Desmodium unicinatum   (silver leaf desmodium) South America

Drymaria cordata   (tropical chickweed) South America, Galapagos

Hypochaeris radicata   (flat weed, sometimes known as ‘dandelion’)

Lantana camara   1.1875, 1A.1885   South America

Ochna atropurpurea   1A.1885   South Africa

Oxalis corniculata   (creeping Oxalis) 13.1900/1  Europe

Ricinus communis   (Castor oil plant) 1A.1885

Solanum mauritianum   (Wild tobacco) South America

Tradescantia albiflora   (Wandering Jew) South America

Trifolium repens   (White Clover) Europe

Guilt Free Gardening with Exotica

Privet species and Camphor Laurel are mentioned elsewhere. In our garden donor plants such as Salvia coccinea and Ruellia spp may be regarded by others as weeds but we enjoy their fecundity. Some calvinistic Australian ‘indigenous plant only’ enthusiasts may regard this entire catalogue as one of weeds.

It is probably realistic to rely on the traditional definition of a weed as a plant which is growing “where it is not wanted”. This of course begs the questions: if not wanted, why? Where? and by whom?

If simply being from outside this continent makes a plant a weed then not only are all introduced ornamentals suspect but we must also condemn barley, wheat, rye, oats, millet, sorghum, rice, corn, sunflowers, canola, soy beans, cotton, sugar cane, pineapples, bananas, all citrus fruits (except finger lime), mangos, paw paw, avocado, all vegetables & pulses, passion fruit, kiwi fruit, hops, grapes, pasture grass and just about all means of sustaining life in Australia. Ipso facto the enormous catalogue of exotic ornamental plant material is an integral part of our urban and rural gardenscape and landscape. Just like the enormous catalogue of productive plants these exotic ornamentals mostly out perform indigenous species in the domestic role in which they are used and should be enjoyed, just like wheat bread, or wine, without any guilt.


Leave a Reply