Inventory of the Trees, “The Shambles”

                          THE TREES at ‘The Shambles’ in 2020.

Key for historic reference notations to Plant entries:

“Catalogue of the Plants in the Queensland Botanic Gardens”. Walter Hill, Government Printer, Brisbane 1875.                            1. 1875

“Catalogue of Plants in the two Metropolitan Gardens, The Brisbane Botanic Garden and Bowen Park (The Garden of the Queensland Acclimatization Society). Frederick Manson Bailey, Colonial Botonist, Government Printer, Brisbane 1885                                     1A. 1885

“Designed Landscapes in Queensland, 1859-1939”, Jean Sim, QUT, 1999, APPENDIX G, referred to the following plant lists:

“The Flower garden in Queensland, containing concise and practical instructions for the Cultivation of the flower garden. And the management of Pot Plants in Australia”, Albert Hockings, Slater & Co, Brisbane, 1875                                                                     2. 1875

“Cultural Industries in Queensland: Papers on the Cultivation of Useful Plants suited to the climate of Queensland:their value as food, in the arts, and in medicine; and methods of Obtaining their products” Lewis Bernays, Government printer, Brisbane , 1883, (pp 201-207, The Shade of trees)                                                                     3. 1883

“Tree Planting for Shade and Ornament: Suggestions for teachers and others interested in the Planting of Trees” Edward Shelton, Dept of Agriculture, Government Printer, Brisbane, Bulletin 17, 1892

List: Philip McMahon, Brisbane Botanic gardens Curator     4a.  1892

        Ebenezer Cowley, Overseer, State Nursery, Kamerunga4b.  1892

        J S Edgar , Botanic gardens , Rockhampton                 4c.   1892

        William Soutter, Manager , Acclimatization society      4d.   1892

“General Catalogue of Seeds, Plants, bulbs, Tubers, trees, Climbers, etc.” Samuel Eaves, Howard, printer, Brisbane, 1897           5.    1897

“Queenslander” under ‘Horticulture’ section ‘Shrubs’, William Soutter, 18/12/1897 pp 1181                                                            6.    1897

“General descriptive Catalogue for 1874, of Fruit trees, Shrubs, Ornamental and forest trees, Etc. etc” Charles Wyatt, Frogmore Nursery, Geelong 1874                                                          7.    1874

“1896 Catalogue of Flower roots”. Law, Somner & Co., Melbourne, 1896                                                                                      8.   1896

“Catalogue of Plants for Sale by Michael Guilfoyle” Exotic Nursery, Double bay, Sydney 1851                                                       9.   1851

“Catalogue of Plants for Sale at the Victoria Nursery, Richmond” George Brunning, Melbourne, 1855                                                  10.  1855

“Report on the Progress and Condition of the Botanic Garden and Government Plantations, 1873”, R.Schomburgk, W.C.Cox: Government Printer, Adelaide, 1874                                                          11.  1874

“Botanic Gardens, Brisbane, Catalogue of Plants 1962”, Brisbane city Council, Brisbane, 1962                                                        12. 1962

“Federation Gardens: Plant lists, Compiled from Searl & Sons General Catalogue 1901, Seeds, Plants & Bulbs for Sydney; Pearce Bros.Descriptive Catalogue and Guide 1900; Robert Little & Co’s Catalogue of Flower seeds Sydney 1900: Rumsey’s 1882 Catalogue (Roses) Sydney 1882                    13. 1900/1

“Talgai Homestead, Plant Ledger, commenced in 1868-1907 by Ellen and George Clark. Additions after 1907-1942 George Carr Clark, 1945-1965 Bardwell”                                                                     14. 1868                                       ,Hortus camdenensis: an illustrated catalogue of plants collected by Sir William Macarthur at Camden Park, NSW, Australia between about c.1820 & 1861 / by Colin Mills     15. Camden

“The Garden Plants of China” Peter Valder, Florilegium, Sydney 1999      16. China

When looking at 19th century references gardeners were particularly interested not just in ornament, but in timber, shade and food producing trees. In our garden a tendency to collect and plant everything and anything has meant that tubestock planted in 1992 are now substantial trees. We have been forced to remove one or two.

Acacia concurrens (Black Wattle) Large tree, which freely self seeds and invades open areas. Prone to borer damage and loose bark and consequently favoured by local Black Cockatoos. Lifespan 15- 50 years. Eastern Australia 4a.1892 In Hedge Western Border

Acer palmatum.(Japanese maple unknown variety). This fully deciduous cool climate small tree has dramatic red autumn foliage. The dissected maple leaves and overall form making these a popular garden specimen. Alleged lifespan of sixty to seventy years. China, Korea. 1A.1885 (6 other species Acer), 13.1900/1 Central Shrub garden-Northern end

Agathis robusta (Queensland Kauri), Related to the Araucarias, with course leathery leaves, one of the tallest Queensland trees. This plant requires careful placement but may become a statuesque landmark. Estimated lifespan 300-1000 years.  Discovered by John Bidwill.  Almost certainly grown from material collected by John Bidwill at Wide Bay and probably grown in gardens before it reached Europe or was botanically described by Charles Moore. North Eastern Australia 1.1875 (Dammara robusta), 1A.1885 (Agathis robusta & 4 other species) 5.1897, 7.1897, 13.1900/1 South West Corner behind car garage

Alloxylon flammeum syn. Oreocallis wickhamii (North Qld tree waratah) A spectacular small tree with bright red waratah like flowers. Northern Border-Plough Inn

Araucaria bidwillii (Bunya pine). A locally endemic tree which may reach landmark size. The leathery foliage is quite sharp and difficult to handle while cones may reach enormous size and weight before falling from this tree. This statuesque tree has been planted in parks and gardens around the world. It was first botanically described by Sir William Hooker in the Journal of Botany from a plant taken to England by John Bidwill. William MacArthur sent detailed instructions on how to germinate seeds and drawings of its mode of germination in a letter to Sir William Hooker at Kew on the 11th of February 1848. Estimated lifespan 100->500 years. Eastern Queensland. 1.1875, 1A.1885, 4a.1892, 5.1897, 7.1897, 10.1855, 13.1900/1, 14.1868 North East Corner-Araucaria Walk

1A.1885, Brisbane reference lists 5 Araucaria, bidwillii, cookii, cunninghamii, excelsa, rulei. 14.1868 A.glauca

Araucaria cunninghamii (Hoop pine) A tall ‘pine’ locally endemic in south east Queensland. These may reach great size but cones are small and the foliage is softer in comparison to A. bidwillii. Introduced to Britain before Araucaria bidwillii exact date uncertain.1.1875 (2 varieties), 1A.1885, 13.1900/1 North East Corner-Araucaria walk, Western Edge

Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk pine) An introduced and popular landscaping tree with a more symmetrical, conical growth habit compared to local Araucarias. Introduced to Britain before Araucaria bidwillii date uncertain. Pacific Islands 1.1875 (A.excelsa), 1A.1885, 5.1897 (A.excelsa), 7.1897, 10.1855 (A.excelsa). 13.1900 Western edge, Embankment east of pool

Banksia integrifolia locally indigenous Banksia which may be maintained as a large shrub but may become a large tree in our conditions.  Commonly known as coast banksia, is a species of tree that grows along the east coast of Australia. One of the most widely distributed Banksia species, it occurs between Victoria and Central Queensland in a broad range of habitats, from coastal dunes to mountains. It is one of the four original Banksia species collected by Sir Joseph Banks in 1770, and one of four species published in 1782 as part of Carolus Linnaeus the Younger‘s original description of the genus. Specimens of Banksia were first collected by Sir Joseph Banks and Dr Daniel Solander, naturalists on the Endeavour during Lieutenant (later Captain) James Cook’s first voyage to the Pacific Ocean. Cook landed on Australian soil for the first time on 29 April 1770, at a place that he later named Botany Bayin recognition of “the great quantity of plants Mr Banks and Dr Solander found in this place”. East Coastal regions 1A.1885 Blue trellis Garden, NW corner

Barklya syringifolia (Crown of gold tree) Beautiful small tree, with attractive new foliage and racemes of golden flowers. Slow growing, lifespan unknown. North Eastern Australia 1.1875, 1A.1885, 4a.1892, 4c.1892 Blue trellis garden

Bauhinia blakeana (Orchid tree) Pink flowers, ovate folded leaves, semideciduous, self seeds, a common street tree in warm climates. Apparently discovered aroun the ruins on the Hong Kong foreshore by French missionaries and named for the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Henry Blake. Brittle in wind and prone to deformity through epicormic regrowth. Estimated lifespan, 50-70 years. China 1.1875, 13.1900/1, 16.China Removed from Eastern Border 2010, but seeds back in.

Brachychiton acerfolia syn. Sterculia acerfolia (Illawarra Flame tree). Tall spectacular tree with maple type leaves, loses foliage and has remarkable covering of red bell like flowers, followed by seed pods in late spring. First introduced into England in 1824.  First described under the name Brachychiton acerifolius by William Macarthur and Charles Moore as part of the the New South Wales exhibit at the Paris Exhibition of 1855.  North Eastern Australia 1.1875 (Sterculia acerfolia), 1A.1885, 4a.1892 (Sterculia accerfolia), 7.1897 (Brachychiton acerfolia), 9.1851 (Brachychiton flammea), 13.1900/1, 15.Camden Orchid Walk

Brachychiton discolor (lacebark). Tall attractive tree with ovate pointed leaves. Beautiful pink bell like flowers followed by seed pods in spring. Eastern Australia 1.1875 (Sterculia discolor), 1A.1885 (Sterculia discolor), 13.1900 Tiny one Criss-cross garden

Buckinghamia celsissima (Ivory curl tree) spectacular flowering season, covered in cream-white flowers, can be maintained to shrub size, attractive new foliage. North East Queensland 1A.1885 central shrub garden, orchid Walk

Cassia fistula (Golden shower tree) Untidy and forgettable tree when not in flower but spectacular yellow cascades of flowers make up for this in early summer. Lifespan up to 200years. Tropical Asia 1.1875, 1A.1885, 9.1851 (C.auranta) Driveway, west gardens

Castanospermum australe (Black bean) A large eastern Australian rain forest tree with orange flowers followed by large pods containing inedible ‘beans’. Once a popular street or large garden specimen. Life span >100 years. Eastern Australia 1.1875, 4c.1892, 7.1897, 13.1900/1 Rainforest garden/North West Corner

Cinnamomum camphor (Camphor laurel) This has self seeded into our hedge. Planted widely in the past as a spectacularly successful shade tree, these have serious weed potential in warm climates. Foliage has strong camphor content and odour. Lifespan estimated 500 years. Introduced to Europe in 1727.   Probably a very early introduction to Australian gardens, possibly with the intent of assessing its commercial possibilities for distillation of Camphor.  Edward Macarthur provided seed to the Sydney Botanic Garden in 1823. China, Japan, Taiwan.1.1875 (Camphora officinalis), 1A.1885 (Cinamomum camphora), 4.1892 (Laurus camphora), 7.1897 (Laurus camphor), 10.1855 (Laurus camphor), 13.1900/1, 15.Camden Within Southern Hedges of Privet

Colvillea racemosa (Colville’s Glory) is a deciduous tree with an open, elongate crown and irregularly spreading or pendulous branches. It usually grows up to 20 metres tall but occasional specimens can be up to 30 metres. The bole is usually straight and cylindrical, but sometimes slightly sinuous. It can be up to 100cm in diameter. All parts of the plant are poisonous if ingested and handling may cause irritation to the skin
The tree is harvested from the wild for local use of its wood. It is suitable for reforestation projects and is often planted as an ornamental because of its bright orange flowers and delicate foliage. Pollinated by Sunbirds. Its genus is named for Sir Charles Colville, a former Governor of Mauritius. Africa Western Madagaskar. 1.1875, 1A.1885 NW corner garden

Corymbia intermedia, (pink bloodwood), is a species of medium to tall tree that is endemic to north-eastern Australia. It has rough, tessellated bark on the trunk and branches, flower buds in groups of seven, white flowers and oval to barrel-shaped fruit North Boundary

Cupressus torulosa (Bhutan cypress). A conifer with classical mature cone shape which was introduced into the garden after service as one of our Christmas trees. Introduced to Europe in 1824 Cupressus torulosa was part of a consignment of plants sent from Kew to Camden Park NSW by John Bidwill in November 1843. We removed two of these in 2012. Long lifespan. Asia 5.1897, 7.1897, 15.Camden Araucaria Walk

Cupressus glabra “blue ice” beautiful icey blue foliage, “Limelight” lime greenish yellow foliage. Coloured accent trees in a collection of conifers. Long lifespan 7.1897 (Cupressus glabra) Araucaria Walk

Cupressus cashmeriana One of these beautiful weeping foliage, grey-blue cypress has great structural interest in a conifer garden or lawn specimen. Asia 1.1875, 5.1897, 7.1897 South East Corner/boundary

Corymbia intermedia, (pink bloodwood), is a species of medium to tall tree that is endemic to north-eastern Australia. It has rough, tessellated bark on the trunk and branches, flower buds in groups of seven, white flowers and oval to barrel-shaped fruit North Boundary

Dysoxylum mollissimum subsp. molle,( red bean, Miva mahogany), is a rainforest tree in the family Meliaceae. It occurs in tropical, sub-tropical and littoral rainforests in eastern Australia, as far southwards as north-eastern New South Wales NW Rainforest corner (Also suspected of being a Polyscias)

Elaeocarpus bancroftii (Ebony Heart) Named by Ferdinanad Von Mueller in 1886. North Queensland Blue trellis garden

Eucalyptus species are only represented by 2 species in our garden but in the borrowed landscape there are Eucalyptus grandis (flooded gum), Eucalyptus microcorys, Eucalypyptus propinqua and various Corymbias. Hill in 1875 lists 33 species of Eucalypt, most from Queensland.1A.1885  (6 species 3 from Queensland). 13.1900/1

Eucalyptus ptychocarpa  syn. Corymbia ptychocarpa, commonly known as the swamp bloodwood or spring bloodwood, is a species of tree that is endemic to northwestern Australia. It has rough bark on the trunk and branches, broadly lance-shaped adult leaves, flower buds in groups of seven, creamy yellow, pink or red flowers, and barrel-shaped, ribbed fruit . Swamp bloodwood was first formally described in 1859 by Ferdinand von Mueller who gave it the name Eucalyptus ptychocarpa and published the description in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, Botany. In 1995 Ken Hill and Lawrence Alexander Sidney Johnson changed the name to Corymbia ptychocarpa. Small specimen, North side of Blue Trellis

Eucalyptus robusta (Swamp Mahogany) medium to large tree with a dense crown and long, spreading branches when grown in open ground. It regularly attains heights of 20-30 m, The trunk is usually straight and extends to about one half the height of the tree, or to two thirds of the tree height in dense stands on favourable sites. The bark is rough and persistent to the small branches, thick, held in coarse, soft, spongy, elongated slabs with deep longitudinal furrows, grey or reddish grey-brown The operculum long, beaked; flowers white, ours is favoured by pale headed Rosellas. Eastern Coastal Australia. E. robusta is one of the most widely planted Eucalyptus species, and it has been introduced into many tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperate areas, including many countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, America and the West Indies East Border

Ficus species in 1885 Brisbane reference include F.aspera, bengalensis (Banyan), benjaminea, bennetii, carica, casearia, elastica (India rubber) , glomerata, laccifera, macrophylla (Moreton Bay) , nitida, pinkiana, parcellii, pleurocarpa, pumila, religiosa, roxburghii, sycamorus

Ficus benjamina (Small leaf fig) Large spreading tree with cascading branches to form an umbrella canopy. Long lifespan, popular landscaping tree for shade in parks and gardens. India and Southern China.1.1875 (24 species of Fig), 1A.1885, 4.1892, 4a.1892, 4b.1892 Rainforest North West Corner

Guioa semiglauca, known as the guioa or wild quince, is a rainforest tree of eastern Australia. We have mistakenly called this ‘Black Wattle’ It grows from Kioloa (35° S) near Batemans Bay in southern New South Wales to Eungella National Park (20° S) in tropical Queensland. It grows in many different types of rainforest, particularly common in regenerating areas and on sand in littoral rainforest. The veiny leaflets are pinnate 5 to 10 cm long. The midrib extends beyond the leaf to form a tiny tip. Green above, whitish glaucous below. The yellow/green flowers form around September to November. The fruiting capsule matures from January to May. The seeds are oval covered by a thin layer of fleshy aril. Fruit eaten by a large variety of birds, including the Australian king parrot. Western Boundary ( 2 LARGE SPECIMENS REMOVED WESTERN BOUDARY SEPT 2020)

Grevillea baileyana White silky oak is a medium sized tree with large attractive leaves with brown underside. White flowers are less spectacular than the golden flowers of G.robusta .North East Australia Central Shrub Garden, Northern End

Grevillia robusta (Silky oak) Endemic large tree, “A favourite tree for pleasure grounds”, Searl’s 1901. Spectacular display of golden flowers in spring. Evergreen but often quite dense leaf fall. Lifespn 50-100 years. Collected by Alan Cunningham and introduced to Kew Gardens in Britain in 1829 Eastern Australia. 1.1875, 1A.1885, 4.1892, 9.1851, 13.1900/1,15.Camden North East Corner/ Boundary

Hymenosporum flavum, or native frangipani, is a rainforest tree which is native to Queensland and New South Wales in Australia and New Guinea. In cultivation it is usually only a small, very slender and upright tree up to 10 metres high. It begins to bloom in early spring, when the fragrant, open, tubular flowers are cream-coloured. They darken with age to a deep sulphur yellow before they drop. In some forms the flowers may have a reddish centre. The effect of masses of cream and yellow flowers It is the sole species within the genus Hymenosporum, and is closely related to the widespread genus Pittosporum. Hymenosporum flavum (Hook.) F.Muell., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. 2: 77 (1860); Pittosporum flavum Hook., Curtis’s Botanical Magazine t. 4799 (1854). Type: ‘ex Hort. Kew from Wide Bay, Qld, Bidwill’; NW corner garden

Jacaranda mimosifolia Mauve flowers appear at the same time as the golden flowers of Silky Oak in our borrowed landscape. A popular shade and ornamental tree in domestic gardens and for street planting. Life span up to 150 years, Caribbean, South America.  New Farm Park, Brisbane’s Famous Jacarandas were planted in 1914 1A.1885 Just beyond Northern Boundary

Jacaranda mimosifolia alba and this rare species was introduced into Australia in 1960 by George Hewitt, a doctor from Bellingen, NSW. Dr Hewitt imported them from a collector in Florida, who had sourced them in Brazil, the Jacaranda’s country of origin. The Bellingen Hospital still has an original white Jacaranda on the grounds today, which is said to be the parent of many of Australia’s home-grown White Christmas trees.  takes the place of Tabebuia chrysora next to the driveway

Juniperus chinensis “Spartan”  This conifer is hardy and relatively fast growing. It has very dark green foliage, an upright, conical habit and produces small, fleshy berries. It is a very dense grower. Asia  In shade Araucaria walk NE corner

Juniperus procumbens alba Prostrate form in rock garden related to conifer area. The technique of combining various forms of conifers together has popularized the use of prostrate forms. 7.1897 In shade Araucaria Walk

Juniperus squamata “Blue star” A compact conifer as a specimen shrub with grey-bluie foliage or to contrast with a collection of different conifers. Long lifespan Asia 1.1875 (J.squamata), 5.1897 In shade Araucaria Walk

Koelreuteria panniculata (Golden rain tree) Known TO BE REMOVED 2020 as Luangshu in China it was identified in writings as one of the 5 memorial trees over 3000 years ago.   Attractive deciduous self seeding tree. Yellow flowers followed by attractive pink seed pods. This tree has been used as a Queensland street planting but has weed potential. Lifespan 50-60 years. A hardy Chinese treelike shrub, said to have been introduced to Britain by Lord Coventry about 1763. It may have reached Russia before 1847. China to Korea 1.1875, 1A.1885, 10.1855, 15.Camden, 16.China Western Boundary beyond Orchid Walk (LARGE ONE REMOVED NEAR WESTERN BOUNDARY SEPT 020)

Laurus nobilis (Sweet Bay tree). Slow growing broad leaved evergreen tree well known for both the ‘Victors wreath of Laurel’ and as a culinary leaf. A very hardy tree. An important culinary herb, growing wild in Spain, Italy and France, cultivated in England since at least 1562. In Camden Park NSW from 1843.  Mediterranean.1A.1885, 7.1897, 10.1855, 14.1868, 15.Camden Fenced Rose garden

Leptospermum petersonii, (lemon-scented teatree) A shrub or small tree that is endemic to eastern Australia. It has thin, fibrous or flaky bark, often strongly-scented elliptic to lance-shaped leaves, white flowers and fruit that are retained for several years. It was first formally described in 1905 by Frederick Manson Bailey in the Queensland Agricultural Journal from a specimen collected by W.J. Peterson on Wilsons Peak in January 1905. The leaves are distilled commercially for the essential oil which contains citronellalcitral, and pinene. It is grown in plantations in Kenya, Zaire, South Africa, Guatemala and Australia.The leaf of lemon-scented teatree is also used as a flavouring ingredient in boutique tea blends with standard black tea, Camellia sinensis.  The essential oil from L.petersonii inhibits the pathological fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus   Near Wishing Well

Libidibia ferrea syn. Caesalpinia ferrea (leopard tree).  This genus was named Professor Andrea Cesalpino a 16th century Physician and Botonist from Pisa. Beautiful deciduous tree grown for its patterned bark, as a shade and street tree and a garden specimen. Yellow flowers in summer. South America 1.1875 (4 spp caesalpinia). 1A.1885 (6 species) Blue trellis garden, Araucaria walk

Liquidamber styraciflora Fully deciduous, large specimen tree with maple like leaves and rich autumn colour. Lifespan 200-300 years. USA 1A.1885 (L.styrachiflua) Ours is establishing fairly slowly in shade North East Corner/ Araucaria Walk

Ligustrum vulgare (Common or small leaf Privet) We inherited this plant in our old hedge with the house. Self seeds, suckers, and needs regular suppression. This hedging plant was used widely and is already at large as a significant weed throughout the whole district. Known in China as Xiaolashu (Small Leaf).  Commonly used for ornamental hedging in England and probably an ancient garden plant.  Associated with sinus irritation and asthma. Lifespan 30-40 years. 1.1875, 5.1897, 7.1897, 9.1851, 13.1900/1, 14.1868.15.Camden Principal plant of our very large Hedge, facing West/ Western Boundary.

Ligustrum ovalifolium syn.Ligustrum japonicum syn. Ligustrum lucidum Known in China from the Song dynasty (960-1279) as Nuzhen (Womens Chastity). It was introduced from China, about the year 1794, by the late Sir Joseph Banks (large leaf privet) hedge plant. Not only does it self seed, it suckers and infests garden beds. An invasive plant introduced locally as hedging, now choking local waterways. It gives our garden marvellous privacy and weather protection. L. ovalifolium Introduced to Europe by Siebold in 1845. Obtained for Camden Park, NSW from Kew Gardens, brought out from England by Captain P. P. King in 1849. It is Glyphosate sensitive. Lifespan 30-40 years. Japan 1.1875, 5.1897, 7.1897, 9.1851 (L.japonica, L.vulgare), 13.1900/1,15.Camden Principal Plant of our large hedge facing Western Avenue/ Southern Boundary

Litsea leefeana (Brown Bollygum, Brown Bollywood) A rainforest tree in the laurel family. A small to medium-sized tree endemic to the rainforests of tropical and subtropical Queensland. The specific epithet is named after a Mr. Leefe, a botanical collector from the Kennedy district of northern Queensland. Orchid Walk

Macadamia integrifolia Large tree, free flowering and produces edible nuts in a hard kernel. These are used as one of the few commercial cropping plants native to Australia. Lifespan is greater than 100years. One of our large old trees is host to the epiphytic umbrella tree Schleffera, We lost a large specimen in a storm which had been host to the strangler fig Ficus watkinsiana and many epiphytic ferns. 1.1875 (M.vesticellata, M.ternifolia), 1A.1885 (Macadamia ternifolia), 4.1892 (Maroochy nut), 4a.1892. Old shade tree references may refer to the edible M.ternifolia syn. M integrifolia) Near Back Stairs

Magnolia grandiflora var. “little Gem”, “Kay Parris” Erect small tree with large glossy leaves and white, perfumed Magnolia flower in spring and summer. The claim for ‘Little Gem’ variety is that it will not grow to the enormous size that M.grandiflora can reach. Introduced to Britain in 1734.  Lifespan 150-200 years. Carolina, USA 1.1875, 1A.1885, 7.1897, 9.1851, 13.1900/1, 14.1868, 15.Camden Central Shrub garden

Magnolia syn Michelia champaca (Himalaya magnolia) Lovely open small tree with large leaves that may hang down. Yellow perfumed flowers in spring/summer. Foothills of the Himalayas  1.1875, 1A.1885, 13.1900/1 Central lawn Borders

 Magnolia syn. Michelia doltsopa var “silver cloud” Tall growing Michelia with perfumed white flowers, late summer early winter. A tall growing cultivar of the magnolia Michelia doltsopa are used as a tall screen or as a specimen tree that will reach a height of 8 – 10m depending on conditions. ‘Silver Cloud’ was originally selected by Duncan and Davies in New Zealand. It has a smaller and neater growth habit than the parent species and flowers from a younger age (after 2-3 years). Michelia doltsopa itself originates from western China and eastern Himalayas. 1.1875 (M.doltsopa) North Driveway

 Magnolia syn. Michelia x hybrid “bubbles” (M.doltsopa x M.figo) Strong open pyramidal growth and  capable of growing to 4m  The foliage is dark green and glossy and “Bubbles” is covered in masses of white, lightly fragrant flowers from late Winter through Spring  Garden hybrid Driveway, South Rose garden

 Magnolia syn. Michelia x hybrid “Mixed up miss” (M.doltsopa x M.figo)  Highly scented evergreen shrub with glossy leaves and ivory cup-shaped flowers tipped with pink, similar in form to M. ‘bubbles’. Ours have reached 4 meters as healthy small tree Driveway

 Magnolia syn. Michelia “Pink Pearl” (M.doltsopa x M. figo) ‘Pink Pearl’ has masses of pink flowers with a light perfume in early Spring. This vigorous growing Magnolia has large numbers of flower buds along the stems. In NW rainforest garden

Melicope ellrtyana syn.Euodia elleryana Tall growing tree , pink flowers along the trunk and stems in summer. Bird attracting nectar.Australia 4b1892 Northern Boundary/Araucaria Walk

Melicope rubra syn Evodiella muelleri A small, grey-barked small tree to about 6 metres with glossy green, trifoliate leaves up to 75 mm long. Clusters of bright pink flowers occur along the branches during summer and these are followed by green, citrus-like fruits which grow to about 30-40mm in length and breadth. Birds such as lorikeets and honeyeaters are said to be attracted to this plant. In addition it is one of the food trees for the Ulysses butterfly. NW Rainforest

Melaleuca quinquernervia. (broad leafed paperbark) Common well known small tree with paper bark which is shed in sheets. Although endemic on watercourses ours has established in a free draining garden setting. Melaleuca quinquernervia leaves are 10-15 cm long, evergreen, lanceolate, simple and short-stalked, parallel-veined, alternate in arrangement, and aromatic when crushed. The flowers are small and white, with multiple stamens, arranged in botllebrush-shaped clusters at the branch tips. The fruits are small, round woody capsules containing 200-300 seeds The World Conservation Union’s Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) lists melaleuca as among 100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species and recognizes them as potentially major drivers of ecosystem change in countries such as the Southern USA where it has been introduced. Eastern Australia Path to Blue trellis garden

Mischarytera lautereriana (Corduroy Tamarind) tree to 10m with dense canopy, The leaves are compound, about 25 cms long, divided into 10 to 20 narrow leaflets with wavy margins showy red new growth. There are small white flowers & capsular fruit with edible aril. Fairly fast in moist loamy soils. Protected site, sun or shade. Qld. It occurs north from Mt Glorious (near Brisbane) to the Windsor Tableland (west of the Daintree). It is endemic to Queensland.  NW corner rainforest, East Border Garden

Morus alba. White Mulberry is a very widespread and important crop for silkworm feed, fruit and timber. The species is native to northern China, and is widely cultivated including in Southern Europe for over a thousand years. It is known as shahatut शहतूत in Hindi,Tuta in Sanskrit, Tuti in Marathi, Dut in Turkish and Toot in Persian in Azerbaijani and in Armenian. North west Corner garden

Neolitsia dealbata (White Bollygum). Tree with drooping leaves native to moist forests north-Eastern Australia. Small fragrant brown flowers in autumn 1A.1885 (Litsia dealbata) Orchid Walk

Pharleria clerodendron syn. Drymyspermum clerodendron (Scented Daphne) A small tree or large shrub that is very rare in home cultivation. Its exquisite but not overpowering fragrance alerts garden visitors to seek out the source. This glossy-leaved evergreen is endemic to Australia. Spectacular white, strongly pineapple scented, tubular flowers occur on the trunk and larger branches with the onset of rain. It is a member of the Daphne family (Thymeleaceae). A fast growing species in a moist site with bright or filtered light. Tolerates moist soils. Fruit eating birds eat the glossy fruit. The flesh of the fruit is stringy and reputed to be poisonous to humans. The plant generally looses its leaves in cold weather. North Queensland, Orchid Walk

Polyspora axillaris syn. Gordonia axillaris syn. Franklinia axillaris. A spectacular and hardy tree, beautiful large white flowers with yellow stamens which may cover the ground underneath. Taiwan 1.1875 Shading North West Corner/Coral Fountain (Drawing on page 185 by Kyleigh Simpson)

Polyspora yunnanensis syn. Gordonia yunnanense var. “silk screen” Similar habit and expectation to G axillaris, different leaf form, more erect form and larger white flowers. Yunnan, China Stone Circle/ South East Corner

Posoqueria longiflora Needle Flower Tree. Long tubular white flowers with distinctive night time fragrance. Grows to a modest sized tree in tropical areas and will flower throughout the year as long as the light level is high and the temperatures are warm. It has spreading branches and large glossy, deep green leaves. A somewhat slow grower, it forms clusters of blooms on the ends of the newest growth. Once established, it can tolerate varying light conditions and watering. The genus was established by Aublet in 1775 on material from French Guiana. South America  North west Corner garden

Pouteria australis syn. Planchonella australis (Black apple) is a medium to tall rainforest tree of the family Sapotaceae native to Queensland and New South Wales. It is known by the common name black apple, wild plum, yellow buttonwood, black plum and yellow bulletwood. Medium sized tree with black edible fruit to native animals. Lifespan >100years. Eastern Australia Rainforest Corner

Stenocarpus sinuatus (Firewheel tree) A tall tree with spectacular orange red flowers. May be pruned to shrub height in a garden situation.Eastern Australia 1A.1885 Orchid Walk

Schefflera actinophylla syn. Sciodaphyllum macrophyllum MacArthur.(Umbrella tree) Tall epiphytic tree, once very common in domestic gardens. Bird attracting tall red flowers spikes, spread by seed into bushland by birds. William Macarthur could have received this tree from contacts at Moreton Bay. Northern Australia 15.Camden In the top of Macadamia Tree, Eastern Boundary

Schotia brachypetala (Drunken parrot tree) Medium sized evergreen tree. Nectar rich flowers are very attractive to lorikeets. Ours however, raised from seed by myfather Earl Simpson, has refused to flower after 12 years. South Africa 1.1875, 1A.1885 (2 pecies) 7.1897 (S.latifolia), 9.1851 (S.tamarindifolia). Rainforest Corner

Streblus brunonianus Whalebone tree) A shrub or small tree to 15m with downwardly arching branches) grows in all types of rainforest, particularly along scrubby watercourses. Small male flowers in short spikes, female flowers solitary. Sept. – Mar. Edible yellow fleshy berry ripe Nov – Dec eaten by various birds including Brown Cuckoo dove, Green catbird, Lewin’s honeyeater, Rose Crowned fruit dove and the Topknot pigeon. Mistakenly identified as a Pittosporum rhombifolium Plough Inn. Stabilizing the “Plough Inn” via attachment with a large turnbuckle until 2012

Syzygium very commonly obtained as “Lilly pillies” are Australian evergreen rainforest plants with glossy green leaves. There are about 50 species in Australia occurring in the Kimberly region of Western Australia, the Northern Territory, Queensland and northern New South Wales. Many varieties have flushes of colourful new growth, ranging from brilliant pink to a red-brown. In spring to early summer most lilly pillies have fluffy white or greenish flowers followed by long lasting red, purple or whitish berries. There are many, many species and cultivars on the market, especially promoted as hedging, ad “native” plants which are bird and bee attracting. Once “lilly pillies” were all identified in the genus Eugenia. Botanists have revised their identification into several genera, including Acmena, Syzygium and Waterhousia, then revised them back to Syzygium. Adding to the confusion, many growers have given “lilly pillies” marketing names. Sometimes the same plant will have several names. For example the “lilly pilly” sold as ‘Elite’ is thought to be identical to one sold as ‘Aussie Compact’. As well, some plants are sold under the wrong botanic name. Many “lilly pillies” for example are labelled Syzygium paniculatum, but are actually forms of S. australe

 Syzygium australe, syn. Eugenia australe (Brush cherry, scrub cherry, creek lilly-pilly, creek satinash, watergum) A rainforest tree native to eastern Australia. It can attain a height of up to 35 m with a trunk diameter of 60 cm. In cultivation, this species is usually a small to medium-sized tree with a maximum height of only 18m. Orchid Walk, Blue Trellis Garden

 Syzygium australe “Resilience” Large Shrub, Small tree to 5m unclipped. Compact tightly growing pale green foliage that emerges with a reddish bronze tinge. Excellent for hedging and screening. Psyllid resistant (hence Resilience) claims no leaf distortion. White flowers and white edible fruit. North of Blue Trellis Garden

 Syzgium floribundum syn.Waterhousia floribunda “weeping lillypilly” A beautiful large tree which needs a lot of restraint if intended for hedging or the garden. White flowers followed by greenish fruit 4.1892 (Eugenia ventenatii) Northern borders

Sygygium leumannii (Small Leaf Lillypilly, Riberry, Red Satin ash ) A large evergreen tree with small glossy dark green leaves that are pale pink then red when young bearing clusters of small creamy white flowers mostly in Summer, followed by red edible fruit The habitat is Australian riverine, littoral, subtropical or tropical rainforest. It grows on volcanic soils or deep sandy soils between the Macleay River in New South Wales to near Cairns in tropical Queensland 3 x Eastern end of our Northern Boundary

Sygygium leumannii “Weeping pink flowering” “Cascade” is a beautiful mid sized cultivar shrub with mid-sized glossy apple green leaves with attractive red and pink new growth. Spectacular pink powder-puff flowers in summer are followed by pinkish fruits that are edible and attract birds. Has a lovely weeping habit, with many flushes of coloured new growth, and has a thick bushy habit. Northern Border, Stone Circle SE Corner

Syzygium oleosum (Blue lillypilly, Blue Cherry, Scented Satinash) a large shrub or small tree with rough, rusty brown bark. The leaves are oval or lance-shaped from 30-120 mm long and 10-40 mm wide with conspicuous oil glands. The white flowers appear over a long period from late spring to winter and are followed by round or oval shaped fruits 10 -25 mm in diameter and purplish blue to pinkish-red in colour. Northern Boundary, Orchid Walk

Tabebuia palmeri This is a native of Mexico with a rounded canopy. Has upright growth habit with attractive grey bark. Leaves are mid green and has masses of tubular bell shaped pink flowers in late winter to summer. Mexico. East boundary behind Quisqualis trellis

Taxodium distichum (Swamp cypress) Beautiful, potentially dominant tree, deciduous and very attractive. Introduced to Europe by John Tradescant in 1640. Originally received at Camden Park NSW per the ‘Sovereign’ in February 1831 under the name Cupressus disticha. A tree of gigantic proportions in its native country, where it attains a height of 120 feet, and a girth of 40 feet. Lifespan long, up to 1000 years. USA 1.1875, 1A.1885, 7.1897, 14.1868, 15.Camden Plough Inn, South East Corner/Eastern Boundary

Toona ciliata syn. Toona australis (Red cedar) Deciduous locally endemic tree with attractive red spring foliage. Popular but almost cut out by the timber cutters of the late 19th century. Long lifespan. Eastern Australia 1.1875 (Cedrella australis), 1A.1885 (Cedrela toona). 3.1883, 4a.1892 (Cedrela toona), 4c.1892 (Cedrella australis) Blue Trellis Garden, Orchid Walk, Rainforest Corner

Thuja occidentalis (Hertz midget) Slow growing small conifer for rock gardens or a conifer collection. In the time of Francis I, king of France [1494-1547], this tree was imported into France from Canada. North America, garden variety 1.1875 (5 varieties), 7.1897. 15.Camden Araucaria Walk

Xanthstemon chrysanthus (Golden Penda) lovely yellow flowers on a medium to large evergreen tree. North Eastern Queensland. 1.1875, 1A.1885 Araucaria Walk