BULBS & RHIZOMES at “The Shambles” 2022
Key for historic reference notations to Plant entries:
“Catalogue of the Plants in the Queensland Botanic Gardens”. Walter Hill, Government Printer, Brisbane 1875. 1. 1875
“Catalogue of Plants in the two Metropolitan Gardens, The Brisbane Botanic Garden and Bowen Park (The Garden of the Queensland Acclimatization Society). Frederick Manson Bailey, Colonial Botonist, Government Printer, Brisbane 1885 1A. 1885
“Designed Landscapes in Queensland, 1859-1939”, Jean Sim, QUT, 1999, APPENDIX G, referred to the following plant lists:
“The Flower garden in Queensland, containing concise and practical instructions for the Cultivation of the flower garden. And the management of Pot Plants in Australia”, Albert Hockings, Slater & Co, Brisbane, 1875 2. 1875
“Cultural Industries in Queensland: Papers on the Cultivation of Useful Plants suited to the climate of Queensland:their value as food, in the arts, and in medicine; and methods of Obtaining their products” Lewis Bernays, Government printer, Brisbane , 1883, (pp 201-207, The Shade of trees) 3. 1883
“Tree Planting for Shade and Ornament: Suggestions for teachers and others interested in the Planting of Trees” Edward Shelton, Dept of Agriculture, Government Printer, Brisbane, Bulletin 17, 1892
List: Philip McMahon, Brisbane Botanic gardens Curator 4a. 1892
Ebenezer Cowley, Overseer, State Nursery, Kamerunga4b. 1892
J S Edgar , Botanic gardens , Rockhampton 4c. 1892
William Soutter, Manager , Acclimatization society 4d. 1892
“General Catalogue of Seeds, Plants, bulbs, Tubers, trees, Climbers, etc.” Samuel Eaves, Howard, printer, Brisbane, 1897 5. 1897
“Queenslander” under ‘Horticulture’ section ‘Shrubs’, William Soutter, 18/12/1897 pp 1181 6. 1897
“General descriptive Catalogue for 1874, of Fruit trees, Shrubs, Ornamental and forest trees, Etc. etc” Charles Wyatt, Frogmore Nursery, Geelong 1874 7. 1874
“1896 Catalogue of Flower roots”. Law, Somner & Co., Melbourne, 1896 8. 1896
“Catalogue of Plants for Sale by Michael Guilfoyle” Exotic Nursery, Double bay, Sydney 1851 9. 1851
“Catalogue of Plants for Sale at the Victoria Nursery, Richmond” George Brunning, Melbourne, 1855 10. 1855
“Report on the Progress and Condition of the Botanic Garden and Government Plantations, 1873”, R.Schomburgk, W.C.Cox: Government Printer, Adelaide, 1874 11. 1874
“Botanic Gardens, Brisbane, Catalogue of Plants 1962”, Brisbane city Council, Brisbane, 1962 12. 1962
“Federation Gardens: Plant lists, Compiled from Searl & Sons General Catalogue 1901, Seeds, Plants & Bulbs for Sydney; Pearce Bros.Descriptive Catalogue and Guide 1900; Robert Little & Co’s Catalogue of Flower seeds Sydney 1900: Rumsey’s 1882 Catalogue (Roses) Sydney 1882 www.heritage.nsw.gov.au 13. 1900/1
“Talgai Homestead, Plant Ledger, commenced in 1868-1907 by Ellen and George Clark. Additions after 1907-1942 George Carr Clark, 1945-1965 Bardwell” 14. 1868
www.hortuscamden.com ,Hortus camdenensis: an illustrated catalogue of plants collected by Sir William Macarthur at Camden Park, NSW, Australia between about c.1820 & 1861 / by Colin Mills 15. Camden
“The Garden Plants of China” Peter Valder, Florilegium, Sydney 1999 16. China
Our collection of these plants has built up quite readily because plants with underground storage organs are easily transported, transplanted and shared. Our list contains common garden plants and is evidence of the enormous influence of South African plant collection on the modern ornamental plant range. Many, if not most of these plants are found in historical references.
Acanthus mollis (bear’s breeches) Low growing winter/dry dormant perennial producing tall flower spikes of mauve/brown and white. Shade tolerant. The Acanthus leaf shape has been an inspiration for designers since classical times. 1A.1885, 11.1874, 13.1900/1 East Border Gardens.
Acidanthera bicolor syn.Gladiolus murielae (peacock orchid), a reliable bulb in warm climates, summer flowering, grass like foliage dies down in winter. It was first named in 1844 by Hochstetter as Acidanthera bicolor, from the first collection in 1838 in Ethiopia by Georg Schimper.(www.rhs.org.uk). Naturalized in situ in our garden Abyssinia, East Africa.Front Path garden, Behind Plough Inn and NW corner garden
Agapanthus praecox syn. 19th C references Agapanthus umbellatus (lily of the nile) An evergreen, often used as a landscaping plant and we certainly use it in long rows or larger groups. Tall umbels with white, blue, dark blue standard sized and miniature flowers. Tolerates sun or dry shade. Introduced into cultivation in Europe in 1687 and first named Crinum africanum by Linnaeus 1753. Paxtons Dictionary lists 3 varieties, albiflorus, white; albidus, ‘whitish’; maximus, blue, and the Botanical Register figures a dwarf form, minimus: Southern Africa 1.1875 (A.umbellatus), 1A.1885 (A.umbellatus), 7.1897, 8.1896, 10.1855, 12.1962, 13.1900/1,15.Camden Front Embankment, South Rose garden, Driveway West Gardens, Blue trellis garden, Central Shrubbery. Variegated cv South Rose garden, East Border garden Behind Plough Inn
Agapanthus praecox ‘Enigma bicolor’, Evergreen, dark green strap like arching leaves. Bicolour flowers from blue in the throat to white on the petal’s edge. Grows up to 50cm in height. Requires full sun and moist but well drained soil. cetral shrub garden
Agapanthus Double Blue Boy is an unusual agapanthus with double flowers. These plants are grown from tissue culture to ensure uniformity and stability of flowering. The plants are currently growing in 75mm tubes and are a good size. north lawn jasmine arch This is a sterile species that does not set seed. A clumping perennial.Beautiful florets of double dark blue flowers. A tough plant for that difficult area. Full sun to Part shade.
Alstroemeria pulchellum Red and green ragged flowers on a naturalizing plant in our garden. Summer flowering, winter dormant and probably an invasive donor plant. First botanically described as Alstroemeria pulchella by Linnaeus in 1782. Introduced to Britain in 1829 and listed at Camden Park NSW by 1843. Brazil.1A.1885 (A.psittacina), 10.1855 East Border garden, South Rose garden
Alstroemeria hybrids (Princess lily) Summer flowering, winter dormant, many flower colours available, most demonstrate decorative spots in flower throat. They are quite expensive to buy so we don’t have many. South America-Chile.1.1875 (4 species) North Rose garden, Rock garden near back stairs.
Anemone coronaria ‘De Caen’ Mixed variety of white, bright pink, red and blue anemones which grow best in a warm spot in acid soil, rich in humus, in a spot in full sun or partial shade. The De Caen Group of Anenomes are singles bred from Anenome coronaria by Madame Quetel of Caen in the 19th century. Spring flowering. Garden hybrid from Mediterranean region. Only in pots, seasonally
Anenome x hybrida, A.hupehensis (Windflower) Naturalizing winter dormant Anenome, beautiful white flowers. It resents prolonged wet weather, or drying out. Known in China from the Song dynasty (960-1279) as Quimudan (Autumn tree peony) and introduced to Britain from China in 1844 by Robert Fortune. Obtained for Camden Park NSW from Kew Gardens, brought out from England by Captain P. P. King in 1849. 2.1875, 7.1897, 8.1896, 10.1855, 15.Camden Central Shrub garden, North Rose garden, NW corner garden
Arisaema tortuosum – tuberous perennials with a clumping habit, They are grown for their unusually shaped ‘flower head’. The flowers are tiny and born on a long tail-like purple and green spadix that that is surrounded by a hooded green bract (spathe). The compound, palmately lobed leaves appear at the base of the plant. Arisaema have been a popular garden plants since introduction from Yunnan by George Forrest in 1914. Asiatic species are often called cobra lilies, while western species are often called jack-in-the-pulpit; Deciduous Hydrangea Walk. Central shrub garden
Aristea ensifolia (Blue Stars) Acquired from Hunchy gardeners and only identified after visiting Coffs Harbour botanic gardens. An elegant clump forming plant with sword shaped, Iris like foliage aroubnd long stems that bear masses of lovely small six petalled blue flowers in spring and summer. They are only marginally frost hardy and the flowers close up at night. South Africa South of fenced rose garden, Wishing well.
Colchicum autumnale (crocus) May emerge from lawn and elsewhere after rain. In our area it appears to ‘volunteer’ in many gardens and roadside verges, mostly pink flowering. Europe, North Africa, Asia 1.1875, 8.1896, 13.1900/1 Front path garden
Canna indica & Canna edulis, Canna x generalis (Indian Shot). yellow flowering Canna indica varietie “Tropical Yellow” and longitudinal variegated leaf forms all lumped together in this description. Some maintenance required as flower heads do not self clean.Self seeds readily. South America 1.1875 (C.indica), 1A.1885 (6 species), 7.1897 (C.gigantea, C.indica, C. limbata), 8.1896, 10.1855 (C.iridiflora, C.indica), 11.1874, 13.1900/1 (31 varieties). 15.Camden East Border garden, NW corner garden
Clivia x cyrtanthiflora is a hybrid between Clivia miniata and Clivia nobilis and has pale to medium orange flowers in large clusters of narrow, pendulous blooms, mainly from late winter to early spring, but they can appear at other times of year too. Clivia x cyrtanthiflora is the name given to the first recorded hybrid bred in Europe in the 19th century between C. nobilis and C. miniata. This hybrid (or later generations of it) seems to have arrived in Australia relatively early in the country’s history of the introduction of Clivia and can be found in large massed displays in some Australian botanic gardens (eg Melbourne, Sydney and Adelaide) as well as in some older private gardens. Persimmon walk
Clivia gardenii is a stunning species Clivia that shows off delicate looking heads of tubular orange flowers common names;Major Garden’s clivia, Natal drooping clivia (English); boslelie (Afrikaans); umayime (Zulu) with creamy green tips. A reliable performer under tough conditions, Clivia is a very good plant for a shady dry position. Also known as Kaffir Lily, this evergreen clump forming plant with dark green strap like leaves produces large heads of orange/ brick red flowers in Spring once mature.
Clivias require a well drained soil and a frost free position. They love filtered light but will tolerate heavy shade and still grow well making them a great choice for planting under trees or in dark corners. For best results ensure Clivias do not receive too much water, particularly over the cooler months. Originating mostly from KwaZulu-Natal, C. gardenii makes a beautiful addition to the shady garden. It is apparently able to tolerate fairly dry conditions, as the roots are fleshy and have water storage capabilities. This makes it a wonderful waterwise garden plant. It is also an excellent pot specimen that requires a well drained humus-rich potting medium.
Clivea miniata. (Kaffir Lily) An evergreen, often used in landscaping, reliable and colourful in shade with orange to cream flowering varieties, winter to spring, will tolerate dry shade. Clivia gained their current name from the English botanist John Lindley in 1854. Lindley (1799-1865) was the first Professor of Botany at London University. He named the South African plant to honour Lady Charlotte Florentina Clive, Duchess of Northumberland. South Africa (syn.Imantophyllum) 1A.1885 Orchid Walk, South Rose gardenCrocosmia mansonorum Orange flower spike, establishes easily in drifts, totally reliable, sun or shade. Summer flowering, winter dormant. Naturalize in situ. South Africa 8.1896 (C.aurea, Montbrettia), 13.1900/1 Fenced Rose garden, Rain forest walk, Front Embankment.Crocosmia mansonourum A deciduous, bulbous plant, growing up to 0.8 m high. The stiff leaves are lance-shaped and longitudinally pleated, 25-50 mm wide. The stem is inclined with the flowering spike held horizontally so that the dense inflorescence is presented in a showy arc. Bright orange flowers. Plants flower in summer, from December to January.The species is named in honour of the Edwardian artist, Marianne Mason and her brother Edward Mason, of St Bede’s College in Umtata, who collected the species in 1911. Plants were cultivated at the Cambridge University Botanic Garden the following year from corms brought to Britain by Marianne Mason. Umtata, Eastern Cape Drakensberg Mountains, South Africa Throughout the garden, Fenced Rose garden, Front path Garden, Front Embankment.
Clivea nobilis. Similar habit to C.miniata but has pendulous orange flowers and longer leaves. Clivia nobilis was the first species of Clivia to be described in 1828. It was a popular plant in England until the more spectacular Clivia miniata appeared on the scene 30 years later. Clivia nobilis occurs as isolated populations on the east coast from Alexandria Forest near Port Elizabeth northwards to Hole in the Wall (in former Transkei). Clivia nobilis is the only species known to have been grown at Camden in NSW before 1863 but has now been lost from the gardens. Africa 1A.1885 South Rose garden
Crinum asiaticum syn. Crinum australe (river lily) Large size and white flower attracts attention. John Bidwill described six varieties of Crinum australe growing in Sydney in an undated entry in his notebook, but probably c.1840.Tropical Asia 1.1875 (11 species of crinum) Orchid Walk
Crinum pendunculatum (spider lily) Tall stems beautiful white flowers. Low maintenance and evergreen. It had been known in collections, according to Donn’s Hortus cantabrigiensis, from the year 1790; but it is uncertain by whom it was introduced. Cultivated at Chelsea, by P. Miller in1807. Eastern Australia, Pacific Islands 1.1875, 1A.1885, 7.1897, 8, 1896, 13.1900/1 East border garden x 3
Crinum bulbispermum x C. moorei ‘powellii’ Summer flowering Pink, white flowers, forms large clumps, evergreen. 19th Century hybridization of South African species 1.1875 (11 species of crinum), 1A.1885 (C.moorei, amaenum) East border Garden
Crinum powellii album is a member of the amaryllis family. They grow into large bulbs measuring up to 20cm wide. The long flat leaves grow from the top of the neck of the bulb. The flower stalks grow up to 1.2m long with 5 to 10 large, lily-like white fragrant flowers from middle to late summer . They prefer part shade or some morning shade but no afternoon sun. Does best in well drained soil enriched with organic matter. Foliage may remain evergreen if there is ample moisture otherwise it dies off over winter. Price is per small bulb when available. central shrub garden
Crinum oliganthum x C. asiaticum variety cuprefolium, = Crinum menehune “Wine Time” . (Red Bog Crinum). Dark Burgundy foliage, Pink flowers to white. Hybridized in USA in 1980s. Central Shrub garden
Cyrtanthus mackenii (Ifafa lily) pretty cream or pink pendulous tubular flowers on strappy foliage. Winter dormant. The species name mackenii honours Mark J. McKen, a pioneer collector in KwaZulu-Natal, who became the first curator of the Durban Botanic Garden in 1851. Naturalize in situ.South Africa.1A.1885 north lawn.
Cyrtanthus elatus x Cyrtanthus mackenii red prince nortnlawn rosearch
Dahlia x hybridum Dahlias of many garden variety forms from low growing singles in a variety colours to tall ‘cactus’ and ‘pom pom’ forms. Most garden cultivars are hybrids derived from D. pinnata and D. coccinea. The Dahlia is stated to have been introduced in 1789, by the Marchioness of Bute, as a native of Mexico, and that the Comte de Vandes imported several varieties from France, where the plant had been cultivated for some years. Andrews’ Botanical Repository figured Dahlia pinnata in 1804, probably the first English journal to do so.Winter dormant- summer flowering. Naturalized in situ. Originally this plant species came from Mexico, South America. For more contact ‘The Queensland Dahlia Society inc’www.gardenclubs.org.au, 1.1875 (D.variabilis, 24 garden varieties), 1A.1885 (27 varieties), 7.1897, 8.1896, 10.1855 (6 varieties), 13.1900, 14.1868 (60 varieties+) 15.Camden Central Shrubbery, near Stone Circle, Central Lawn and borders.
Dianella tasmanica Variegata Variegated Dianella, Variegated Flax Lily, Tasman Flax Lily, Native evergreen perennial with arching, strappy variegated leaves. Clusters of star-shaped bright blue flowers appear in spring and throughout summer and are followed by decorative glossy blue berries. An ideal choice for poolside, containers, mass planted in borders and also dry shade. Caution, berries of this variety are toxic.pot in blue trellis garden
Dietes bicolor syn. moraea bicolor African iris or fortnight lily) is a clump-forming rhizomatous perennial plant with long sword-like pale-green leaves, The blooms are yellow with three dark purple spots, each surrounded by an orange outline, and are followed by a capsule that may bend the flower stalks to the ground. South Africa 1.1875, 1A.1885, 8.1896, 13.1900/1 Front Embankment NW corner garden
Dietes grandiflora syn Moraea compressa White/mauve iris flowers in summer, very tough plant in drifts throughout the garden. Very drought tolerant. ‘Found by Thunberg in the interior of the Cape country in modern South Africa, near a house called Kock’s-Farm. Cultivated by Miller in 1758, who received the seeds from the Cape, under the title of “White Water-Lily” South Africa 1.1875, 1A.1885, 8.1896, 13.1900/1, 15.Camden Front Embankment, Central Shrubbery, Blue trellis garden, Fenced Rose garden
Dietes grandiflora var. “White Tiger”, Variegated Dietes with longitudinal cream leaf stripes & margins Garden Cultivar Blue Trellis garden
Dietes robinsoniana, the Lord Howe Wedding Lily is found naturally only on Lord Howe Island. It grows on cliff faces, often in exposed situations. Found also on forest margins and the tops of Mount Gower and Mount Lidgbird and behind the beaches on Lord Howe Island. The tallest form of Dietes reaching up to 1.5m tall. It has glossy green strappy foliage. The flowers are large satiny white with yellow spots in the centre and only last for one day but continuously bloom throughout spring to summer. It was introduced to mainland Australia in 1869 by Charles Moore, director of the Sydney Botanic Garden who collected it on Lord Howe Island during a long South Pacific scientific expedition. Lord Howe Island. Persimmon Walk
Dierama Pulchellum (Fairy Fishing Rod) South Africa. LOST AGAIN 2016 Central lawn border
Eucharis amazonica (Amazon lily). Lovely white pendulous flowers on one of the most beautiful flowers of plants in our garden. South America 1A.1885, 8.1896, 13.1900/1 (E.grandiflora) East Border garden, West Gardens near laundry.
Euchomis comosa var.’Purple Stem’ syn. Asphodelus comosus (Pineapple lily). Large central flower spike resembling pineapple from centre of rosette of strappy leaves. Introduced by Mr. John Graefer, in 1783, from the Cape of Good Hope. Garden variety, South Africa 15.Camden North of Fenced Rose garden
Eomecon chionantha (Snow Poppy). a low growing perennial with white, cuplike flowers in sprays. Eomecon is a monotypic genus of flowering plants in the poppy family containing the single species Eomecon chionantha. Its common names include snow-poppy and dawn-poppy. It is native to China. This perennial herb produces stolons from its branching rootstock, spreading to form patches on the ground First described by Henry Fletcher Hance in 1884. China Central Shrub garden
Freesia hybridum mixed colours Freesia is a genus of herbaceous perennial flowering plants in the family Iridaceae, first described as a genus in 1866 by Chr. Fr. Echlon and named after German botanist and doctor Friedrich Freese. It is native to the eastern side of southern Africa, from Kenya south to South Africa, most species being found in Cape Provinces The plants usually called “freesias” are derived from crosses made in the 19th century between F. refracta and F. leichtlinii. Numerous cultivars have been bred from these species and the pink- and yellow-flowered forms of F. corymbosa. Modern tetraploid cultivars have flowers ranging from white to yellow, pink, red and blue-mauve
Freesia laxa grows from corms, reaching about 15–30 cm (6–12 in) tall. The green leaves are arranged in a flat “fan” from which the flower stalk emerges. The flowers are flattened, about 2 cm (0.8 in) across. Their colour varies considerably our specimens are red, transplanted from the Montville School grounds. It is native to the eastern side of southern Africa. In the the wild, in the Southern Hemisphere, it flowers between October and December. This small bulbous species has been known by a variety of names. The name Gladiolus laxus was originally published by Carl Thunberg in 1823. Peter Goldblatt transferred the species to Anomatheca laxa in 1971; Nicholas Brown changed it to Lapeirousia laxa in 1928; Goldblatt with his colleague John Charles Manning settled on Freesia laxa in 1995. Separately, in 1830, John Lindley described Anomatheca cruenta which John Baker transferred to Lapeirousia cruenta in 1892 Lindley’s plant is now regarded as part of Freesia laxa Throuhout our paths NW garden
Freesia refracta alba syn. Tritonia refracta, Freesia ‘Burgundian hybrids’, F. ‘Hernswood mixed’ Beautiful intensely fragrant flowers on a low growing plant. Winter dormant, spring-summer flowering. Naturalized in situ.Tritonia refracta first introduced from the Cape of Good Hope by Messrs. Lee and Kennedy of the Hammersmith Nursery. Tritonia refracta was introduced to Britain in 1815. Freesia refracta alba Freesia alba is an herbaceous perennial growing from a corm and producing an erect, often branched stem up to 40 cm (16 in) centimeters tall with several leaves up to about 15 centimeters long. The inflorescence is a spike of several fragrant flowers with usually white tepals marked with yellow and purple. The genus Freesia is named after F.H.T. Freese (died 1876), a German physician from Kiel and a pupil of Ecklon. Freesia has a rather complicated and confusing history with lots of wrong names, misapplication of names and synonymy-for the full version see the 1982 revision by Peter Goldblatt. The first two species that were cultivated in Europe in 1766, were both placed in different genera viz. F. corymbosa was thought to be a Gladiolus and F. caryophyllacea was thought to be an Ixia. Freesia refracta arrived there in 1795 and was also thought to be a Gladiolus. Freesia sparrmannii was collected in 1770 and described in 1814, also as a Gladiolus, and the fifth species was called Gladiolus xanthospila but this one has never been related to any wild plant and is thought to be a form of F. caryophyllacea. Ecklon, Zeyher and Drege, all active in the early 1800s, sent back several species including F. sparrmannii, F. refracta, F. corymbosa, F. leichtlinii and F. andersoniae. It was only in 1866 that Freesia was described as a distinct genus. Freesia alba was first described in 1878 by G.L.Meyer, and became well known in Europe, as F. refracta var. alba. Gumbleton recognized Freesia alba as a distinct species in 1896. There is no record of how it got there, but Freesia alba first appeared in the English nursery trade in 1878 and quickly spread to Europe and North America. It appears to have caused quite a sensation, Cape province South Africa. NW corner garden South Africa, -garden hybrids. 8.1896, 13.1900/1,15.Camden Front Path Garden, North Rose Garden. NW corner garden
Gloriosa superba Family Colchicaceae Common Names Glory lily, Climbing lily, Creeping lily, Fire lily, Flame lily, Gloriosa, Gloriosa lily, Rhodesian flame lily. A scrambling or climbing plant with stems growing up to 4 m long. Its shiny bright green leaves are alternately arranged, stalkless, and usually have short tendrils (1-2 cm long) at their tips. Its showy flowers have six large ‘petals’ (5-8 cm long) that are usually bright red or orange with yellow markings. Their ‘petals’ have wavy edges and are strongly turned backwards. Its fruit are fleshy capsules (3-10 cm long and 1-2 cm wide) containing many large (4-5 mm long), round, reddish seeds. All parts of this plant are toxic to humans and animals if ingested especially the fleshy tubers. They are native in tropical and southern Africa to Asia. Persimmon walk
Haemanthus coccineus (blood lily), winter/dry dormant , globe of red flowers emerging in spring, after rain. 13.1900/1 Near Plough Inn
Hemerocallis aurantica (Day lily) there are yellow, orange, cream and multicolor varieties from specialist suppliers. The names of all of our varieties have been lost from our records. Winter dormant, spring-summer flowering. Naturalized in situ. ‘Day lilies’ were introduced into England in the late 16th century. Paxton’s Dictionary gives a date of 1599 for Hemerocallis fulva, and many garden varieties and hybrids had been developed by 1843. It is probable that the plants grown at Camden Park under the name of Hemerocallis fulva and Hemerocallis disticha were such varieties. Paxton’s and Johnston’s Dictionary list Hemerocallis disticha as a distinct species, introduced to Britain in 1798. It is figured in the Ornamental Flower Garden and shown with yellow and orange flowers 1854 East Asia For more contact ‘The Brisbane Day-lily Society’ at www.gardenclubs.org.au 1.1875, 1A.1885 (H.fulva), 10.1855 (4 species ? varieties), 13.1900/1 (H.disticha, H.fulva, H.lilioasphedelus, H.middendorffii), 15.Camden Front Path garden, Fenced Rose garden, Front Embankment
Hippeastrum equestra, Varieties include Red Rascal, Pink Rascal, Alaska, Ballentino and many unidentified. Resilient bulb semi-dormant in winter, with large white/pink , orange and striped red trumpet flowers emerging on tall stems in summer. Like Agapanthus these can be a permanent garden feature and low maintenance and very strong contributor to the spring garden. Naturalized in situ. Introduced into Britain in 1710. South America. 1.1875 ( H.breviflorum), 1A.1885 (H.breviflorum solandreflorum), 7.1897, 10.1855 (6 species), 13.1900/1 (H.puniceum), 15.Camden Front Path Garden, Front Embankment. NW Cordner garden, Near Fenced Rose garden
Hippeastrum papilio (Butterfly amaryllis) Evergreen bulb, tall growing with complex flower colour Central America Blue Trellis Garden
Hyacinthoides hispanica.(Spanish bluebell ) Winter dormant low growing plant with spikes of blue bell shaped flowers in spring. Ours are naturalizing slowly and better each spring. North Rose Garden
Hymenocallis caribea. syn Pancratium caribaeum (white Spider lily). Charming and tough drift forming plant which can be used like Agapanthus as a landscaping plant, in similar situations. Dr.Johnson’s Dictionary gives a date of introduction for Pancratium declinatum of 1825, and 1730 for P. caribaeum. South America (syn. Ismene festalis?) 1A.1885, 15.Camden Central shrubbery, Plough Inn, North East Borders.
Hymenocallis speciosa variegata the green-tinge spiderlily, is a species of the genus Hymenocallis that is native to the Windward Islands in the eastern Caribbean. Blue Trellis Garden
Ipheion uniflorum low growing bulbous plant, winter dormant. Small star shaped flowers of various colours in spring. 13.1900/1 Central Lawn and Borders.
The Brisbane 1885 reference 1A.1885 lists Iris germanica, longifolia, lusitanica, pumila, pseudocorus, susiana, xiphioides, xiphium.
Iris japonica syn. Iris chinensis (winter Iris) lovely low growing, drift forming plant with pale blue flowers, with attractive spots and markings. Known in China as Hudichua (Butterfly flower) these are evergreen, winter-spring flowering. Johnson’s Dictionary gives a date of introduction to Britain of 1792 for Iris chinensis, the description of which fits I. japonica. Japan-China 1.1875, 13.1900/1,15.Camden, 16.China Pandorea trellis near back stairs.
Jonquil see Narcissus jonquila
Kniphofia aloides (Red hot poker) Our unnamed variety possilbly Kniphofia x praecox has tall orange/red “poker” flower spikes in summer while spreading to form an evergreen clump of spear shaped leaves. There are many Kniphofia varieties available. South Africa (syn. Tritoma) 1A.1885 (K.uvaria) North Rose garden, Pool Embankment, Front Embankments, Central lawn and Borders
Kniphofia uvaria (dwarf Poker) ‘Apricot Nectar’ variety to be placed as a front of border plant Garden Cultivar Central Lawn and borders
Leucojum aestivum (Snowflakes) beautiful white bells on low growing plant. Winter dormant-spring flowering. Ideal for shady garden edges. Naturalized in situ. An ancient garden plant which a native of Austria, Hungary, Tuscany, the South of France, and England. Hardy; blooms in spring Southern Europe.1.1875 (2 species), 1A.1885, 8.1896, 13.1900/1, 15.Camden South East Corner and Stone circle
Ligularia tussiliginea syn. Farfugium japonicum Aureo-maculata (Leopard plant). Tsuwabuki in Japan. It grows in a loose clump about 60 cm (24 in) tall and wide, spreading by rhizomes. Daisy-like yellow flowers, 2.5–5 cm (1–2 in) across, are borne in loose clusters in autumn and winter. Moisture loving perennial with large dramatic foliage. Japan Hydrangea Walk, East Path garden, Just west of Fenced Rose garden
Lilium formosanum (Taiwan lily) semi-deciduous tall growing lilium with pendulous white flowers in summer. This may naturalize in situ and become a ‘volunteer plant’ or a roadside weed. Taiwan Front Embankment
Lilium lancifolium syn L.tigridium (Tiger lily) Introduced by Kerr in 1804 from China where it is known as Juandan (Rolled up red) for as least 1000years. Central lawn borders , near sundial China 16.China
Lilium longiflorum. (November lily) Winter dormant, tall lily with long white bells in November-December. These do need staking to enjoy summer flower display. Naturalize in situ. Both Curtis’s Botanical Magazine and Flore des Serres figure Lilium longiflorum as a tall-growing species with white flowers, from Nepal and introduced in 1849. At Camden Park NSW from 1850. Japan.1.1875, 7.1897 (‘lilium of all sorts’), 8.1896, 10.1855 (5 species), 13.1900/1, 15.Camden Front Path garden, East Border gardens
Lilium x lankonensis .The first commercial cross of Lilium longiflorum (Christmas Lilies) and Lilium lankongense (Japanese Turk’s Cap Lilies). Released at the Chelsea Flower Show in 2011 White with purple spots in throat NorthRose Garden
Lilium regale (Regal Lily Alba) trumpet-shaped flowers and cultivated elsewhere as an ornamental. It was introduced to England in 1903 by Ernest Henry Wilson. southwestern China North Rose Garden
Lilium regale is a long-lived, stem-rooting bulbous plant. The leaves are borne at irregular intervals on the stem. Plants grow up to 2 meters high, though 1.2 to 1.5 meters is more common in the garden. The flowers are 14 cm long, funnel or trumpet shaped, white with yellow throat, flushed purple outside. Stamens are prominent. The flowers are strongly fragrant, especially at night
Liriope muscari.var. ‘Evergreen giant’, ‘Joy Mist’, ‘Samantha’. A common hardy low growing landscaping plants with strappy leaves. Subtle differences in the colour of flower spike may be more noticed when drifts have formed. Evergreen Japan.1A.1885 (Liriope stricta) Blue trellis garden, Rain forest Walk, Front path Garden , Fenced Rose garden
Mirabilis jalapa. (4 O’clock plant). These tall winter dormant, summer flowering plants have brightly coloured flowers which open in the afternoon. Colours vary through yellow/oranges through to pink and mauve. Introduced to Britain before 1596, and mentioned in catalogues rom Camden Park NSW after 1843.Tropical North America. 1.1875 (4 var.), 1A.1885, 10.1855, 15.Camden East Border gardens, NW corner garden, planter box behind north verandah
Moraea villosa Peacock Iris is endemic to the Western Cape of Africa and was once renown for mass spring flower displays in the Cape lowlands. Moreaeas favour a wet winter and drier summer, and they are best left in the ground to naturalise. The foliage and flowers emerge winter to spring and they are dormant through summer. The flower stems grow 20-35cm tall and the narrow foliage grows to 40cm. South Africa. Front Path Garden
Narcissus jonquila (Jonquil) “Paperwhite” “Soliel d’Or”, “Erlicheer”. Winter dormant, Spring flowering Jonquils reappear without being lifted in our subtropical garden. White, Double golden yellow, double white flowers on above-named garden varieties but a mysterious single white jonquil has appeared in their midst. Naturalized in situ. The fragrant jonquil is a native of Spain, Introduced to Britain in 1596.Jonquil: This term actually refers to a specific type of daffodil known as Narcissus jonquilla, although the name is often used as a more general term for daffodils in certain parts of the country. They are most easily identified by their dark green, tube-shaped leaves as compared to other types of daffodils which have flat leaves. Jonquils also tend to have clusters of several flowers, instead of just one bloom, along with a strong scent. Europe-Asia- garden hybrids. 1.1875 (Jonquila), 8.1896, 13.1900/1 (Narcissus tazetta ‘Soliel d’or’), 15.Camden North Rose gardens, in containers ner front verandah, Central Lawn and Borders.
Neomarica caerulea is a rhizomatous plant with tall, attractive fans of evergreen foliage, blue flowers (ht to 1 m). Neomarica (walking iris, apostle’s iris or apostle plant – names also used for the related genus Trimezia) is a genus of plants in family Iridiceae Brazil 8.1896 (syn. Marica coerules) 10.1855 (syn. Marica coerilla), 13.1900/1 (Neomarica caerulea Blue trellis garden, Path next to Fenced Rose garden, Central Shrub Garden, East border garden Front Path Gardena dn in hanging pots
Neomarica gracilis (walking Iris) An evergreen low growing plant with blue and white Iris flowers forming on a long blade like stem. Buds tend to be white. Flowers smaller and with different markings than N.northiana These stems may then touch the ground to set roots and propagate the size of the clump, hence the common name perhaps. Brazil.1A.1885 (Marica northiana) Blue Trellis garden
Neomarica longifolia syn. Trimezia martinicensis . Yellow flowering Neomarica. Very tough, pretty, easily propagated and reliable. Erect leaf blades with flowers formed on these forming plantlets for proapagtion Southern Mexico, Trinidad & Tobago, Martinique, South America. Blue Trellis Garden
Neomarica northiana, North’s false flag, walking iris, is a flowering plant, native to Brazil, Plantlets grow at the ends of the flower stalks. As the plantlets grow, their weight causes the stalk to dip to the ground where they take root. Very similar to Neomarica gracilis but with N.northiana leaf blades are shorter and broader, flowers are larger and buds are yellowish rather than white. It has attractive white flowers with mauve, yellow and brown central markings. The underside of the tepals is yellow. It flowers over a long period from spring. It will grow in full sun in cooler areas and part shade in hot areas.Brazil.1A.1885 (Marica northiana) Plough Inn, Central Shrub garden path at Fenced rose garden
Ornothogallum arabicum (Arabs eyes) Winter dormant, spring flowering bulb. White star shaped flowers with dark centre on a tall stem. Naturalized but not happily. South Africa. 1.1875, 1A.1885, 7.1897, 8.1896, 10.1855, 13.1900/1 North Rose garden, Central lawn and borders.
Phormium tenax var. ‘Bronze Baby’ (New Zealand flax). These tall,tough plants have long bronze coloured leaf blades , seem reluctant to start in our often moist conditions on acidic soil. There are many foliage colour varieties of this common and popular landscaping plant. 1.1875 (3 var.),1A.1885 (2 var.) 10.1855 Front Embankment.
Proiphys cunninghamii. (Brisbane lily) Originally gathered [by Allan Cunningham] in the year 1824, on the banks of the Brisbane River. We have one sad specimen but will retrial near Araucarias where the original type was collected. Western gardens Hydrangea Walk
Polianthes tuberosa grows in elongated spikes up to 45 cm (18 in) long that produce clusters of fragrant waxy white flowers that bloom from the bottom towards the top of the spike. It has long, bright green leaves clustered at the base of the plant and smaller, clasping leaves along the stem Mexico, Front Path Garden
Sparaxis (Harlequin lower) Sparaxis tricolor has bright red flowers with yellow and black centres. Many named hybrid cultivars were bred from S. bulbifera and S. tricolor. endemic to Cape Province, South Africa. NW Corner garden
Sprekelia formosissima (Jacobean lily), Naturalizing low growing deciduous bulb with complex orchid like red flowers. Rarely flowers but persists in 2017 Mexico. 1.1875, 1A.1885, 13.1900/1 North of Fenced Rose Garden
Strelitzia reginae (Bird of Paradise).A tall, tough, evergreen plant has long leaf blades and a remarkable orange/blue flower on a tall spike. Statuesque in a subtropical garden. Previously considered as a species of Heliconia, and named Strelitzia, in honour of Queen Charlotte (Von Strelitz). Introduced to the royal garden at Kew by Sir Joseph Banks in the year 1773. Strelitzia reginae was part of a consignment sent to Camden Park NSW from Kew by John Bidwill in November 1843 South Africa.1.1875, 1A.1885, 12.1962, 13.1900/1,15.Camden Pandorea trellis near back stairs.
Tigridia parvonia (Jockey Cap Day lily) low growing deciduous bulb with brightly coloured and patterned spring flowers. Described in Andrews’ Botanical Repository as Ferraria pavonia in 1801. Tigridia species are known as ‘el cacomite’ in Mexico and grown for food rather than ornament. Mexico 13.1900/1,15.Camden Beside path below back Verandah NOT EMERGED IN 2016-7 LOST
Tropaeolum tricolorum (tricolor) is one of the prettiest little spring flowering plants. It may have small flowers, however it does have lots of them and they are fascinating. Small trumpet shaped flowers red and purple with a pale lime green to yellow lip. Sometimes called the ‘Bolivian Nasturtium’ and yes they are related to the common garden type. These are a a climbing plant, that grow from small tubers. We grow them in a terracotta pot with a climbing frame attached. You could plant them out into the garden where they will scramble through other plants, however as the flowers are so fascinating we do like to have them on show. Tropaeolum tricolorum Care One of the main tricks to growing this wonderful little plant is to make sure it gets a dry summer. We put the pots away under cover when the plants have died back. Any cool dry position will do, ours are in the potting shed.
Tulbaghia leucantha is a stemless, perennial plant producing rosettes of grass-like leaves 45 – 60cm tall from underground corms with a rhizome-like base[, the mountain wild garlic, is a species of flowering plant in the family Amaryllidaceae, widely distributed in southern Africa Plants grow from a cluster of small bulbs attached to a basal plate that is sometimes regarded as a rhizome[ The plant is usually evergreen but becomes dormant in areas with a cold or dry season[ The plant is sometimes gathered from the wild as a local source of food. It is sometimes grown as an ornamental nerr back stairs.
Tuhlbagia violacea “Silver Lace” Tulbaghia violacea variegata is commonly referred to as Society Garlic and is related to the onion family producing a strong smell of garlic when leaves are bruised or when flowers are picked. Long strappy grey-green and cream variegated foliage form tight clumps while mauve tubular flowers bloom on tall. The nether region
Tritonia crocata These winte ner back stairsr dormant- spring flowering bulbs have beautiful pink and white varieties in our garden. Although naturalized in site, they will certainly need division to bring back flowering. Plant resembling freesia in size and form. South Africa. 1.1875, 1A.1885, 7.1897, 8.1896, 10.1855, 13.1900/1 North Rose gardens NOT EMERGED AFTER 2016
WATSONIA aletroides: A rather attractive and unusual species Watsonia, with orange-red heath-like tubular flowers on 45cm stems. The opening of the flowers are white tipped. A Honey Eaters delight.Herb 25–70 cm high. Basal leaves c. 50–60 cm long. Inflorescence unbranched, flowers c. 1.5–2.5 cm apart. Primary bracts 1.0–2.5 cm long, green below, dry and brownish above. Flowers red-orange to purple or pink, zygomorphic. Perianth tube 3.5–4.5 cm long, curved in basal half; lobes c. 1 cm long, 5–6 mm wide, hardly spreading. Stamens asymmetrically arranged to one side of the flower; anthers c. 5 mm long, yellow; staminodes absent. Style shorter than perianth. Capsule fusiform, 1.5–2.5(–3.0) cm long. Bulbils absent. Flowers Oct. South Africa the nether regon
WATSONIA borbonica subs ardernei “Star of Bethel”: A very stunning deep mauve pink Watsonia with a remarkable almost burgundy line down the centre of each petal. The nether region
Tulbaghia violacea (society garlic). and variegated form A very reliable and pretty low growing plant which forms clumps which are easily divided for the front of beds or underplanting roses. There are a number of garden varieties including variegated leaf forms. Strong garlic odour to crushed foliage. South Africa 8.1896 South Rose gardens, front Path garden.
Zantedeschia aethiopica var.“white arum”,“green goddess” syn.Calla aethiopica, Syn. Richardia aethiopica These have been disappointing in our garden, probably because our wet times are interspersed with very dry periods when these plants get too dry. Also our soil is acidic which may have some bearing. Introduced to Britain in 1731, in catalogues of Camden Park NSW from 1843. South Africa 15.Camden East Border Garden
Zantedeschia (calla lily) ” Unforgettable” varieties beautiful flowering plants. Winter dormant, summer flowering South Africa- garden hybrids.13.1900/1 Hydrangea Walk in pots with Anthurium collection
Zepharanthes candida (white rain lily) These reliable low growing plants reappear and flower during wet weather after many years. This species was sent to the Horticultural Society in 1823, from Peru, where it was collected by Mr. Cowan. Western hemisphere. 1.1875, 1A.1885, 13.1900/1,15.Camden Front Path Gardens, Near stone Circle
Zepharanthes rosea syn. Habranthus robustus. Evergreen, as with the white rain lily beautiful pink trumpets appear over these low growing plants after rain. Self seed easily. Introduced to Europe in 1827 South America.1.1875 (Habranthus rosea) 8.1896 (Habranthus robustus), 13.1900/1,15.Camden Front Path Garden, SE corner of house
Zepheranthes citrina (Yellow Rain Lily) A species of bulbous perennial belong to the family Amaryllidaceae. Perennial boasting bright golden-yellow, crocus-like flowers, 2 in. across (5 cm), in late summer and early fall. Blooming in succession, they sit atop upright stems rising above a tuft of narrow, grass-like, bright green leaves. Zephyranthes citrina was described by Baker and published in Botanical Magazine 108: pl. 6605, in 1882 Mexico Front Path Garden